INTRODUCTION TO THE MAHA SATIPATTHANA SUTTANTA.

 

The doctrine here expounded is perhaps the most important, after that of the Aryan Path, in early Buddhism ; and this tract, the oldest authoritative statement of the doctrine, is still in frequent and popular use among those Buddhists who have adhered to the ancient faith.

 

The two doctrines are closely connected. The exposition here of mindfulness (Sati) includes that of the Path, and no exposition of the Path is complete without the inclusion of mindfulness. Whosoever neglects the fourfold practice of mindfulness he misses the Path, whosoever practises mindfulness has found the Path (Samyutta V, 179, 180, 294). The right way to the practice of mindfulness is precisely the Aryan Path (ibid. 183). And that practice is in turn, in one passage, called the Path to the Unconditioned (Asamkhata, that is, Arahantship, Nirvana, the goal of the Aryan Path). 1

What then is this Mindfulness? This Suttanta will show. But a few observations may help the student of it. Etymologically Sati is Memory. But as happened at the rise of Buddhism to so many other expressions in common use, a new connotation was then attached to the word, a connotation that gave a new meaning to it, and renders ' memory ' a most inadequate and misleading translation. It became the memory, recollection, calling-to-mind, being-aware-of, certain specified facts. Of these the most important was the impermanence (the coming to be as the result of a cause, and the passing away again) of all phenomena, bodily and mental. And it included the repeated application of this awareness, to each experience of life, from the ethical point of view. ' Thus does he cultivate those qualities which ought to be practised, and not those which ought not. That is how repetition is the mark of Mindfulness,' says Nagasena 2 , in complete accord with our Suttanta.

 

1 Samyutta IV, 363. 2 Questions of King Milinda, I, 59.

 

When Christians are told : ' Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God,' a way is shown by which any act, however lowly, can, by the addition of a remembrance (a Sati), be surrounded by the halo of a high moral enthusiasm ; and how, by the continual practice of this remembrance, a permanent improvement in character can be obtained. The Buddhist idea is similar. But the remembrance is of what we should now call natural law, not of a deity. This has been made a corner-stone of the system of ethical self-training. The corresponding cornerstone in the West is conscience ; and indeed, so close is the resemblance in their effects that one scholar has chosen ' conscience ' as a rendering of Sati; — wrongly, we think, as this introduces a Western idea into Buddhism. The curious notion of an internal monitor, distinct from the soul, yet speaking independently of the will of the man himself, is confined to animistic modes of thought. Buddhaghosa uses it, indeed, as a simile, to explain the connotations of Sati; but he expressly pours scorn on any idea of a separate entity. 1

On the other hand though Sati (Smrti) does not occur in any ethical sense in pre-Buddhistic literature, it is possible that the Buddhist conception was, in one way, influenced by previous thought. Stress is laid in the Upanishad ideal on Intuition, especially as regards the relation between the soul, supposed to exist inside each human body, and the Great Soul. In the Buddhist protest against this, the doctrine of Sati, dependent not on intuition, but on grasp of actual fact, plays an important part. This opposition may have been intentional. On the other hand, the ethical value of Mindfulness (in its technical sense) would be sufficient, without any such intention, to explain the great stress laid upon it.

 

The following are some of the proposed translations of Sati:—

 

Conscience, Spence Hardy, 'Manual,' 412.

Attention, Spence Hardy, ' Manual,' 497.

Meditation, Gogerly, ' Ceylon Buddhism,' 584.

    „             Childers, ' Dictionary.' 2

Memory, Oldenberg, ' Vinaya Texts,' I, 96.

    „              E. Hardy, ' Buddha,' 40.

 

1 See Mrs. Rhys Davids's 'Buddhist Psychology,' p. 16, note 1 ; and note 1 above on Vol. I, p. 81.

 

2 He renders kayagata sati, where the word occurs in its technical sense, as 'meditation on the body.' He has other renderings for popular usage.

 

Contemplation, Warren, ' Buddhism in Translations,' 353.

Insight, Neumann, ' Majjhima,' I, 85.

Thought, Pischel, ‘ Buddha,' 28.

      „        Oldenberg, 'Buddha' (English translation), 128.

 

The other word in the compound that gives the title to this Suttanta is Patthadna — which would mean etymologically ' putting forward, setting forth.' It does not occur in pre- Buddhistic literature. It has not been yet found in the Nikayas in its concrete, primary, sense ; or in any connexion except this. Buddhaghosa here paraphrases it, exegetically only, by gocara, which is the feeding- ground, resort, of an animal. The mediaeval use of the word (in its Sanskrit form) was in the sense of starting off, going away, departure. It is the title of the most often quoted book in the Abhidhamma, and there means probably Origins, Starting-points, as it gives under twenty- four categories the paccayas (causes) of phenomena. In one passage of a fifth-century commentator (Tat. I, 78. 5 ) the Abhidhamma Pitaka as a whole is said to be samantapatthana, ' having (or giving) the settings-on-foot, the points of departure, of all things.' Childers gives the word as a neuter. It is masculine throughout our Suttanta. But he analyses the compound (sub voce u pa tthan a m), not into Sati + patthana, but into Sati + upatthana. This is a possible contraction, and Buddhaghosa gives it as an alternative explanation which he does not adopt. Had we adopted it, the rendering of the title would have been ' The getting- ready of Mindfulness.' Neumann renders it ' Pillars of In sight,' and Warren ' Intent Contemplations.' Neither of these is much more than a distant cousin of the Pali.

 

It is not easy at first sight to understand the choice of just those four fields or areas (comp. patthana = thana = gocara), to which, in this Suttanta, ' mindfulness ' is to be applied, or in respect to which it is to be set up. We need ourselves to be mindful, lest, in interpreting them, we follow too closely European points of view. In trying to avoid this danger, we do not consider our choice of terms leaves nothing to be desired, or to be explained. 1

 

The ethical desirableness of Sati, as the instrument most efficacious in self-mastery, lay in the steady alertness of inward vision which it connoted, whether past or present experience was contemplated. In discussing it, the Buddhist was concerned, not with the outer world as such, but with the microcosm of his subjective experience, and with the vehicles thereof — sense and mind. These he is here represented as considering under the fourfold aspect of —

(1) kaya, physical structure and activities,

(2) vedana, the emotional nature, first as bare feeling, then as having ethical implications.

(3) citta, conscious life, consciousness or intelligence, considered under ethical aspects.

(4) d ha mm a, with its subdivisions —

       (a) the Five Hindrances.

       (b) the Five Groups.

       (c) the Six Spheres of Sense.

       (d) the seven Factors of Enlightenment.

       (e) the four Aryan Truths.

 

Now it is always difficult to make any English term coincide with either dhamma or dhamma. Here, as elsewhere in Buddhist diction, it is chiefly the context that must be the guide to meaning. The Suttanta is a discipline — the supreme discipline — in ethical introspection. And in Buddhist introspective analysis, dhamma (elsewhere translatable now by ' things,' now by ' qualities ') are, more especially, ' cognoscible objects,' These are related to ma no (consciousness as apprehending), just as each kind of sense-object is related to one kind of sense-organ ; thing-seen, for example, to sight. A cognoscible object is any presentation (German, Vorstellung), that has got beyond the stage of mere sensory re-action. It is an idea or perception in the wider sense used by Locke : — ' Whatsoever is the immediate object of perception, thought, or understanding.' But neither cognoscible object, nor presentation, is a term which lends itself with sufficient simplicity and impressiveness to ethical homily. We have therefore decided to perpetuate the Lockean ' idea.'

For the same reason we use 'thought ' for citta, in preference to a term of more psychological precision ; and we understand by 'thought', thinking, or knowing, or being intelligently conscious, and do not restrict the word to any special mode of cognition.

 

Hence we get this distinction of aspects in (3) and (4) : under citta, the ever-changing ever-active continuance of consciousness, or re-acting intelligence; under dhamma, those same activities considered objectively, as concrete states, procedure, ' content of consciousness,' as the psychologists phrase it. Under (3) we watch the agency as a whole, in its chameleon-like phases. Under (4) we take transverse cuttings, so to speak, of our subjective experience.

 

It is interesting to note that Buddhaghosa, explaining the inclusion, under No. 4, of the Six Senses and the fivefold Khandha doctrine, says : — ' in contemplation of the body the Exalted One taught only the grasp of matter, in contemplation of feeling and consciousness, only the grasp of the immaterial. material mixed (ruparupamissakapariggaho), he' spoke of d ham ma. And again: 'grasp of the rupa-khanda being taught by contemplation of body, and grasp of the khandhas of feeling and viiifiawa (cognition or consciousness) by contemplation of feeling and citta, He now, to teach grasp of the khandhas of perception and sankhara (let us say, volition and other mental factors) went on' to speak of dhamma.

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MAHA SATIPATTHANA SUTTANTA

  

SETTING-UP OF MINDFULNESS

 

[290] Thus have I heard.

 

i. The Exalted One was once staying among the Kurus. Kammassadhamma is a city of the Kuril country. There the Exalted One addressed the brethren, saying, ' Bhikkhus ! ' ' Reverend sir ! ' responded the brethren. And the Exalted One said :

 

The one and only path, Bhikkhus leading to the purification of beings, to passing far beyond grief and lamentation, to the dying-out of ill and misery, to the attainment of right method 1 , to the realization of Nirvana, is that of the Fourfold Setting up of Mindfulness. 2

 

Which are the Four? Herein 3 , O bhikkhus, let a brother, as to the body, continue so to look upon the body that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, having overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world. And in the same way as to feelings, thoughts, and ideas, let him so look upon each, that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, having overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world.

 

1 Naya. Practical Buddhism is summed up (Majjhima I, 181, 197) as exertion in naya,^dhamma, and kusala (the Method, the Norm, and the Good). Naya is defined at Sa#zyutta V, 388 as what comes pretty much to our method in philosophy. Above (p. 167) it is rendered System. There, in a very old verse, the Buddha says that seeking after Good he had been a pilgrim through the realm of System and Law, outside of which no victory can be won.

 

2 See Introduction.

 

3 The commentarial tradition sees in this word id ha, the implication of 'belonging to this order or doctrine or school' (imasmirh sasane), and thus an antithesis to 'ito bahiddha/ outside this [order] — an expression which occurs immediately after the verse mentioned in the last note.

 

2. [29l] And how, bhikkhus, does a brother so continue to consider the body ?

 

1 Herein, O bhikkhus, let a brother, going into the forest, or to the roots of a tree, or to an empty chamber, sit down cross-legged, holding the body erect, and set his mindfulness alert 2 .

Mindful let him inhale, mindful let him exhale. Whether he inhale a long breath, let him be conscious thereof; or whether he exhale a long breath, let him be conscious thereof. Whether he inhale a short breath, or exhale a short breath, let him be conscious thereof. Let him practise with the thought ' Conscious of my whole body will I inhale ' ; let him practise with the thought 'Conscious of my whole body will I exhale.' Let him practise with the thought ' I will inhale tranquillizing my bodily organism : ; let him practise with the thought ' I will exhale tranquillizing my bodily organism.'

 

Even as a skilful turner, or turner's apprentice, drawing (his string) out at length, or drawing it out short, is conscious that he is doing one or the other, so let a brother practise inhaling and exhaling. [292] So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering

how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof

becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping 'after nothing in the world

 

1 Quoted Patisambhida I, 175, and 'Yogavacara Manual’ p. 1. Each quotation gives a word for word commentary ; and so does Sum. I, 210.

 

2 Parimukha/tt satim upa/Mapati, literally, 'set up his memory in face of (the object of his thought). The ultimate object is throughout, as the ' Yogavacara Manual ' says, Nirvana. Examples of the subsidiary, changing, objects of thought are given in what follows.

 

whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body.

 

3. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, when he is walking, is aware of it thus : — ' I walk ' ; or when he is standing, or sitting, or lying down, he is aware of it. However he is disposing the body, he is aware thereof. So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body.

 

4. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother — whether he departs or returns, whether he looks at or looks away from, whether he has drawn in or stretched out [his limbs], whether he has donned under-robe, over-robe, or bowl, whether he is eating, drinking, chewing, reposing, or whether he is obeying the calls of nature — is aware of what he is about. In going, standing, sitting, sleeping, watching, talking, or keeping silence, he knows what he is doing.

[293] So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to consider the body.

 

5. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother reflects upon this very body, from the soles of his feet below upward to the crown of his head, as something enclosed in skin and full of divers impurities : — ' Here is in this body hair and down, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, membranes, spleen, lungs, stomach, bowels, intestines ; excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, serum, saliva, mucus, synovic fluid, urine.'

 

Just as if there were a double-mouthed sample-bag l , bhikkhus, full of various sorts of grain, such as rice, paddy, beans, vetches, sesamum or rice husked for boiling ; and a keen-eyed man were to reflect as he poured them out: — 'That's rice, that's paddy, those are beans,' and so forth. Even so, bhikkhus, does a brother reflect upon the body, from the soles of the feet below upward to the crown of the head, as something enclosed in skin and full of divers impurities. So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body.

 

6. [294] And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother reflects upon this very body, however it be placed or disposed, with respect to its fundamenials : — ' There are in this body the four primary elements of earth, water, heat,

 

1 Mutoli. Buddhaghosa has no explanation. But Daraminpola says mallak pasumbiyak, that is, a small bag, such as is used by grain merchants for keeping samples in. The particular kind meant is kept tied up with string at both ends, and either end can be opened. The word only occurs in this connexion (here, and at M. I, 57; III, 90). The spelling of the word is uncertain.

 

and air.' Just as a cattle-butcher, or his apprentice, when he has slain an ox, displays the carcase piecemeal at the crossvvays as he sits, even so, bhikkhus, does a brother reflect upon this very body . . . with respect to its fundamental constituents . . .

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ; There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body.

 

7. [295] And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as if he had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-field, dead for one, two, or three days, swollen, turning black and blue, and decomposed, applies that perception to this very body (of his own), reflecting : ' This body, too, is even so constituted, is of even such a nature, has not got beyond that (fate).' So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body.

 

8. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as if he had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-field pecked by crows, ravens, or vultures, gnawn by dogs or jackals or by various small creatures, applies that perception to this very body (of his own), reflecting : ' This body, too, is even so constituted, is of such a nature, has not got beyond that (fate).'

[296] So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ' There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body.

 

9. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as if he had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-neld [reduced to] a chain of bones hanging together by tendons, with flesh and blood yet about it, or stripped of flesh but yet spotted with blood ; or cleaned of both flesh and blood ; or reduced to bare bones, loosed from tendons, scattered here and there, so that the bones of a hand lie in one direction, in another the bones of a foot, in another those of a leg, in another a thigh bone, in another the pelvis, in another [297] the spinal vertebrae, in another the skull, applies that perception to this very body (of his own) reflecting : ' This body, too, is even so constituted, is of such a nature, has not got beyond that (fate).'

 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps 'on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that 1 There is the body,' mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother continue to regard the body.

 

10. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, just as if he had seen a body abandoned in the charnel-field, [reduced to] white bones the colour of a sea-shell . . . or to a mere heap of bones a year old ... or to rotten powder, this perception does he apply to this very body (of his own) reflecting : — ' This body too is even so constituted, is of such a nature, has not got beyond that (fate).'

 

So does he, as to the body, continue to consider the body, either internally or externally, or both internally and externally. He keeps on considering how the body is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the body is something that passes away ; or again he keeps on considering the coming to be with the passing away ; or again, conscious that ' There is the body,' [298] and mindfulness hereof becomes thereby established, far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to the body, continue to consider the body.

 

11. And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to the feelings, continue to consider the feelings ?

Herein, O bhikkhus, is a brother when affected by a feeling of pleasure, aware of it, reflecting : ' I feel a pleasurable feeling.' So, too, is he aware when affected by a painful feeling, or by a neutral feeling, or by a pleasant or painful or neutral feeling concerning

material things, or by a pleasant or painful or neutral feeling concerning spiritual things.

 

So does he, as to the feelings, continue to consider feeling, both internally and externally, or internally and externally together. He keeps on considering how the feelings are something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how the feelings are something that passes away, or he [299] keeps on considering their coming to be with their passing away. Or again, with the consciousness : ' There is feeling,' mindfulness thereof becomes thereby established far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self- collectedness. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, with respect to the feelings, continue to consider feeling.

 

12. And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to thought, continue to consider thought 1 ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, if his thought be lustful, is aware that it is so, or if his thought be free from lust, is aware that it is so ; or if his thought be full of hate, or free from hate, or dull, or intelligent, or attentive, or distrait, or exalted, or not exalted, or mediocre, or ideal, or composed, or discomposed, or liberated, or bound, he is aware in each case that his thought is so, reflecting : ' My thought is lustful,' and so on.

 

So does he, as to thought, continue to consider thought, internally or externally, or internally and externally together. He keeps on considering how thought is something that comes to be, or again he keeps on considering how a thought is something that passes away, or again he ever considers its coming to be and passing away together. Or again, with the consciousness : ' There is a thought,' mindfulness thereof becomes thereby established, [300] far enough for the purposes of knowledge and of self-possession. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, with respect to thought, continue to consider thought.

 

13. And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to ideas 2 , continue to consider ideas ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, continues

 

1 Citta. The reader is reminded that 'thought' is used here for citta in the widest sense possible to that term, such as is intended when, in the Christian tradition, it is made to complement the ' word and deed ' of the Epistles. And as such it is ' thinking ' rather than ' what is thought,' that should be understood.

 

2 Dhamma. See Introduction.

 

to consider ideas from the point of view of the Five Hindrances 1 .

 

And how, bhikkhus, does a brother, as to ideas, continue to consider ideas relating to the Five Hindrances 1 ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, when within him is sensuous desire, is aware of it, reflecting : ' I have within me sensuous desire.' Or again, when within him is no sensuous desire, he is aware of this. And he knows of the uprising of such desire unfelt before, knows too of his putting aside that uprisen sensuous desire, knows too of the non-arising in future of that banished sensuous desire.

[The paragraph is repeated [30i] of ill-will, sloth and torpor, flurry and worry, and doubt]

 

So does he, as to ideas, continue to consider them, both internally or externally, or internally and externally together. He ever considers how an idea is a thing that comes to be, again he ever considers how an idea is a thing that passes away, or he ever considers their coming to be with their passing away ; or again, with the consciousness : ' There is such and such an idea,' mindfulness thereof is thereby established, far enough for purposes of knowledge and of self-possession. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, with respect to dispositions, continue to consider dispositions in the case of the Five Hindrances.

 

14. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, continues to consider these from the point of view of the Five Skandhas of Grasping. And how, bhikkhus, does he so consider them ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother reflects : ' Such is material form, such is its genesis, such its passing away ; such is feeling — perception — the mental activities — such is cognition, its genesis, its passing away.

 

So does he, as to dispositions, continue to consider them, .... [302] . . .

 

1 Literally, ' in the Five Hindrances.'

 

15. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, continues to consider ideas from the point of view of the Six Internal and External Spheres of Sense. And how does he do this ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother is aware of the organ of sight, is aware of the objects of sight, and any Fetter which arises on account of them both — of that, too, is he aware ; and how there comes an uprising of a Fetter not arisen before — of that, too, is he aware ; and how there comes a putting-aside of a Fetter that has arisen — of that, too, is he aware ; and how in the future there shall arise no Fetter that has been put aside — of that, too, is he aware.

 

And so, too, with respect to the organ of hearing and sounds, to the organ of smell and odours, to the organ of taste and tastes, to the organ of touch and tangibles, to the sensorium and images, he is aware of the sense and of the object, of any Fetter which arises on account of both, of how there comes an uprising of a Fetter not arisen before, of how there comes a putting-aside of a Fetter that has arisen, and of how in the future there shall arise no Fetter that has been put aside.

So does he, as to ideas, continue to consider ideas, from the point of view of the Six Internal and External Spheres of Sense. [303]

 

16. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, continues to consider ideas, with respect to the Seven Factors of Enlightenment. And how does he do this ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, if there be present to him subjectively mindfulness as a factor of enlightenment, is aware that it is present. Or if it be absent, he is subjectively aware of its absence. And how there comes an uprising of such mindfulness not hitherto uprisen — of that, too, is he aware ; and how there comes a full development of such mindfulness when it has arisen — of that too is he aware. And so too with respect to the other subjective factors of enlightenment: — search the truth, energy, joy, serenity, rapture, equanimity — he is aware if they are subjectively present, or absent, and he is aware of how there comes an uprising of any factor not hitherto uprisen, and of how there comes a full development of such factors when it has arisen.

 

So does he, as to ideas, continue to consider ideas from the point of view of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment. [304]

 

17. And moreover, bhikkhus, a brother, as to ideas, continues to consider ideas from the point of view of the Four Aryan Truths. And how does he do this ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother at the thought : 'This is ill!' is aware of it as it really is ; — at the thought: 'This is the coming to be of ill!' is aware of it as it really is ; — at the thought : ' This is the cessation of ill!' is aware of it as it really is; — at the thought : ' This is the way leading to the cessation of ill ! ' is aware of it as it really is.

 

18  1 . [305] And what, bhikkhus, is the Aryan truth [regarding] ill ?

 

Birth is painful, old age is painful 2 , death is painful, grief, lamentation, suffering, misery and despair are painful, painful is it not to get what is wished for, in

 

1 What follows (down to the line and space on p. 345) is not found in the Majjhima recension of the Satipa/Mana (M. I, 55 ff.). Except for this the two recensions agree, and ours here is doubtless called the Maha-satipatthana, precisely because, to that extent, it is longer. That would show that when that title was first used the Majjhima recension was already known. It would not follow that the Digha is younger than the Majjhima; they may have been edited at the same time from older material.

The Digha addition is interesting as containing a fragment of Old Commentary (as old as the texts) of which other fragments are found in the Nikayas, and also in the Vinaya.

The Vibhanga (99-106) quotes this Digha addition verbatim.

 

2 Many MSS. and the Colombo edition of 1876 add 'disease is painful.' But this is not mentioned in the word-for-word commentary that follows. It is probably transferred as a gloss from the Samyutta recension of the Four Truths (S. V, 421) which differs slightly from that of the repeaters of the Digha (the Digha- bhanaka).

 

a word, the Five Groups that arise from Grasping are connected with pain l .

 

And what, bhikkhus, is birth ? Birth is the production, the outcome 2 , the rising up in a new form, the appearance of the Groups, the acquisition of sense- spheres, by this or that being in this or that class of beings. This is what is called birth.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is growing old 3 ? Growing old is the decay, the decrepitude, the breaking-up, the hoariness, the wrinkled state, the shrinkage of life's span, the collapse 4 of the sense-faculties of this or that being in this or that class of beings. This is what is called growing old.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is dying ?

 

Dying is the fall (out of any state), the dropping out of it, the dissolution, the disappearance, the death, the dying, the accomplishment of the life-term, the breaking up of the Groups, the laying down of the body of this or that being in this or that class of beings. This is called dying.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is grief?

 

Grieving is the state of woe, heart ache, and affliction. The inward grief, the hidden wretchedness, of one who is visited by some calamity or other, of one who is smitten by some kind of ill. [306] This is what is called grief.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is lamenting ?

 

1 Pane' upadanakkhandha. The Groups are the five groups of material and mental qualities that form, in combination brought about by grasping, an individual. One might, therefore, express this central thought of the first Aryan truth in modern Western language by saying that pain is involved in individuality — a most pregnant and far reaching suggestion. The rest of the Truth is merely a statement of facts universally admitted.

 

2 Saiijati only found elsewhere as yet Digha I, 227, where it means the produce arising out of an estate and accruing to the landlord.

 

3 Cf. Dh. S. and Bud. Psy. on rupassa jarata. (§ 644).

 

4 Paripaka, which in all other passages means maturity, must here mean over-ripeness, loss of power through having reached their full vigour and begun to give out.

 

Lamenting is the act and the state of mourning, lamentation, deploring, of one who is visited by some calamity or other, of one who is smitten by some kind of ill. This is what is called lamenting.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is suffering ?

 

Suffering is bodily ill, bodily pain, ill that is born of bodily contact, the being bodily affected by what is painful. This is what is called suffering.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is misery ?

 

Misery is mental ill, mental pain, ill that is born of mental contact, the being mentally affected by what is painful. This is what is called misery.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is despair ?

 

Despair is the act and state of dejection, of despondency, of one who is visited by some calamity or other, of one who is smitten by some kind of ill. This is what is called despair.

 

[307] And what, bhikkhus, is the ill of not getting what is wished for ?

 

In beings subject to birth the wish arises : — ' Ah ! if only we were not subject to birth, if only we could avoid being born ! ' But this is not to be got by wishing. This is the ill of not getting what is wished for. So too in the case of growing old, falling ill, dying, grieving, lamenting, suffering, being in misery and in despair, in being subject to these the wish arises : — 'Ah ! if only we were not subject to this one or that one of those things ! If only we could avoid them ! ' But this cannot be had for the wishing. This again is the ill of not getting what is wished for.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is ' in a word the Five Groups that arise from Grasping' ? These are the Groups of material form, of feeling, of perception, of dispositions, and of cognition that arise from grasping. This is what is called ' in a word the Five Groups that arise from Grasping are associated with ill.'

 

This, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth regarding ill.

 

19. [308] And what, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth concerning the coming to be of ill ?

 

Even this Craving, potent for rebirth, that is accompanied by lust and self-indulgence, seeking satisfaction now here now there, to wit, the craving for the life of sense, the craving for becoming (renewed life), and the craving for not becoming (for no rebirth) 1 .

 

Now this Craving, bhikkhus, where does it take its rise, where does it have its dwelling? In those material things of this world which are dear to us, which are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

What things in this world are dear, what things are pleasant ? The sense of sight, the sense of hearing, the senses of smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

Things seen, things heard, things smelt, tasted, tangible, things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

The thoughts that arise through sight, the thoughts that arise through hearing, the thoughts that arise through smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are

the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

The stimulus of visual sense, the stimulus of auditory sense, the stimulus of the senses of smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. [309] There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

Feeling that is born of the stimulus of the visual sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of the

 

1 Vibhava. This word usually means power, prosperity, success — the prefix vi being used as an intensitive particle. In this particular connexion the traditional interpretation takes the prefix in a negative sense, and paraphrases the word by ' the absence of becoming (bhava).' This view is apparently supported by some Nikaya passages (S. Ill, 57 ; It, no. 49), and by the Dhamma Sa/»ga»l 13 14. But it may be derived from them; and it is odd that the word should have been found nowhere else in that sense. It is quite possible that the original sense was the usual one. At Dhp. 282 it seems to mean decline in wisdom.

 

auditory sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of the senses of smell, taste, touch and feeling born of imagination — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

The perceiving of things visible, the perceiving of things audible, the perceiving of things odorous, sapid, tangible, of things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

Intentions concerned with things visible, intentions concerned with things audible, intentions concerned with things odorous, sapid, that may be smelt, tasted, touched, tangible, with things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

Craving for things visible, craving for things audible, craving for things that may be smelt, tasted, touched, for things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

Pre-occupation about things seen, pre-occupation about things heard, pre-occupation about things smelt, tasted, tangible, about things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. There does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

Deliberating about things seen, deliberating about things heard, deliberating about things smelt, tasted, tangible, about things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. And there does Craving take its rise, there does it dwell.

 

[310] This, bhikkhus, is what is called the Aryan Truth concerning - the coming to be of ill.

 

20. And what, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth concerning the cessation of ill ?

 

The utter cessation of and disenchantment about that very Craving, giving it up, renouncing it, emancipation from it, detachment from it.

 

But now this Craving, bhikkhus, where, in being put away, is it put away ; where, in ceasing, does it cease ? In those material things of this world which are dear to us, which are pleasant — there may this Craving be put away, there does it cease.

 

What things in this world are dear, what things are pleasant ? The sense of sight, the sense of hearing, the senses of smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

Things seen, things heard, things smelt, tasted, tangible, things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

The thoughts that arise through sight, the thoughts that arise through hearing, the thoughts that arise through smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

The stimulus of visual sense, the stimulus of auditory sense, the stimulus of the senses of smell, taste, touch and imagination — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. [3ll] Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

Feeling that is born of the stimulus of the visual sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of the auditory sense, feeling that is born of the stimulus of the senses of smell, taste, touch and feeling born of imagination — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

The perceiving of things, visible, the perceiving of things audible, the perceiving of things odorous, sapid, tangible, of things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease. Intentions concerned with things visible, intentions concerned with things audible, intentions concerned with things odorous, sapid, that may be smelt, tasted,

 

touched, tangible, with things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

Craving for things visible, craving for things audible, craving for things that may be smelt, tasted, touched, for things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

Pre-occupation about things seen, pre-occupation about things heard, pre-occupation about things smelt, tasted, tangible, about things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may this Craving be put away, here does it cease.

 

Deliberating about things seen, deliberating about things heard, deliberating about things smelt, tasted, tangible, about things in memory recalled — these are the things in this world that are dear, that are pleasant. Here may Craving be put away, here does it cease. This, bhikkhus, is what is called the Aryan Truth concerning the cessation of ill.

 

21. And what, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth concerning the Way that leads to the Cessation of ill ?

 

This is that Aryan Eightfold Path, to wit, right view, right aspiration, right speech, right doing, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right rapture.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is right view ? [312]

 

Knowledge, bhikkhus, about ill, knowledge about the coming to be of ill, knowledge about the cessation of ill, knowledge about the Way that leads to the cessation of ill. This is what is called right view.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is right aspiration ?

 

The aspiration towards renunciation 1 , the aspiration

 

1 Nekkhamma. Burnouf (' Lotus,' 334) derives this word from nis + karma; Oldenberg ('Vinaya Texts,' I, 104) from nis + kama, and Childers {sub voce) from nis + kramya. These three derivations would give the meaning respectively as having no Karma, being devoid of lust, and going forth from home. Daramilipola explains it here as meaning either the second or the third. No doubt Oldenberg is right as to the derivation. But Daramilipola is also right if we take his note as exegetical, not philological. The fact is that the derivation had been, from very early times, forgotten or confused ; and the connotation of the word was renunciation generally, with special reference to these two kinds. It never had anything to do with Karma.

 

The three aspirations of our paragraph here recur at Samyutta II, 152, and on p. 151 nekkhamma is replaced by kama. See also It. no. 72, and M. I, 114.

 

towards benevolence, the aspiration towards kindness. This is what is called right aspiration.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is right speech ?

 

Abstaining from lying, slander, abuse and idle talk. This is what is called right speech.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is right doing ?

 

Abstaining from taking life, from taking what is not given, from carnal indulgence. This is what is called right doing.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is right livelihood ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, the Aryan disciple having put away wrong livelihood, supports himself by right livelihood.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is right effort ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother makes effort in bringing forth will that evil and bad states that have not arisen within him may not arise, to that end he stirs up energy, he grips and forces his mind. That he may put away evil and bad states that have arisen within him he puts forth will, he makes effort, he stirs up energy, he grips and forces his mind. That good states which have not arisen may arise he puts forth will, he makes effort, he stirs up energy, he grips and forces his mind. That good states which have arisen may persist, may not grow blurred, may multiply, grow abundant, develop and come to perfection, he puts forth will, he makes effort, he stirs up energy, he grips and forces his mind. This is what is called right effort.

And what, bhikkhus, is right mindfulness ? [313]

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, as to the body, continues so to look upon the body, that he remains ardent, self-possessed and mindful, having overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world. And in the same way as to feelings, thoughts and ideas,

he so looks upon each, that he remains ardent, self- possessed and mindful, having overcome the hankering and the dejection that is common in the world. This is what is called right mindfulness.

 

And what, bhikkhus, is right rapture ?

 

Herein, O bhikkhus, a brother, aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, enters into and abides in the First Jhana, wherein there is cogitation and deliberation, which is born of solitude and is full of joy and ease. Suppressing cogitation and deliberation, he enters into and abides in the Second Jhana, which is self-evoked, born of concentration, full of joy and ease, in that, set free from cogitation and deliberation,

the mind grows calm and sure, dwelling on high. And further, disenchanted with joy, he abides calmly contemplative while, mindful and self-possessed, he feels in his body that ease whereof Aryans declare ' He that is calmly contemplative and aware, he dwelleth at ease.' So does he enter into and abide in the Third Jhana. And further, by putting aside ease and by putting aside mal-aise, by the passing away of the happiness and of the melancholy he used to feel, he enters into and abides in the Fourth Jhana, rapture of utter purity of mindfulness and equanimity, wherein neither ease is felt nor any ill. This is what is called right rapture.

 

This, bhikkhus, is the Aryan Truth concerning the Way leading to the cessation of ill. [314=]

 

So does he, with respect to ideas continue to consider ideas, both internally, or externally, or internally and externally together. He ever considers how ideas are something that comes to be, again he ever considers how they are something that passes away, or again he ever considers their coming to be with their passing away ; or again with the consciousness ' There are ideas,' mindfulness thereof is thereby established, far enough for purposes of knowledge and of self- possession. And he abides independent, grasping after nothing in the world whatever. Thus, bhikkhus, does a brother, with respect to ideas, continue to consider ideas with respect to the Four Aryan Truths.

 

22. Bhikkhus! whoso shall thus practise these Four Applications of Mindfulness for seven years, in him one or two kinds of fruition may be looked for : — either in this present life The Knowledge 1 or, if there be yet residuum for rebirth, the state of him who returns no more. Or, not to speak of seven years, bhikkhus, whoso shall thus practise these Four for six years, for five only, for four only, for three only, for two only, for one year only, in him one or two kinds of fruition may be looked for : either in this present life The Knowledge, or, if there be yet residuum for rebirth, the state of him who returns no more. Or not to speak of one year, bhikkhus, whoso shall thus practise these Four for six months, or for five months, for four only, or three, or two, or one month only, [315] or half a month only, in him one or two kinds of fruition may be looked for ; either in this present life The Knowledge, or, if there be yet residuum for rebirth, the state of him who returns no more. Or not to speak of half a month, bhikkhus, whoso shall thus practise these Four for seven days, in him one of two kinds of fruition may be looked for : either in this present life The Knowledge, or if there be yet residuum for rebirth, the state of him who returns no more. It was on account of this that that was said which was said (at the beginning)

' The one and only path, bhikkhus, leading to the purification of beings, to passing far beyond grief and lamentation, to the dying out, of ill and misery, to the attainment of right method, to the realization of Nirvana, is that of the Four-fold Setting-up of Starting.

 

Thus spake the Exalted One. Pleased were the brethren, delighting in that which was spoken by the Exalted One.

 

1 Anna; one of the many epithets of Arahantship.