INTRODUCTION TO THE SIGALOVADA SUTTANTA

 

This Suttanta has been translated into English by Grimblot in Sept Suttas Palis (Paris, 1876), by Gogerly, J.R.A.S., Ceylon Branch, 1847, and by R. C. Childers in the Contemporary Review, London, 1876.1 The latter entitled it The Whole Duty of the Buddhist Layman.

 

Childers doubtless sought to draw the eye of the general reader by a title borrowed from a well-known English classic. At this time of day we should look, under a claim so comprehensive, for some statement of political duties, for allusions to the senate and the forum, to affairs national and international. It is not enough to reply that these questions of wider ethics had not arisen. The Saddhamma was promulgated, it is true, in the kingdoms of autocrats like Pasenadi of Kosala, and Bimbisara and Ajatasattu of Magadha. But it was taught at the same time in the villages of the free clansmen of the Sakiyan, Koliyan, Licchavi and other republics. And among these the whole duty of the layman might well have included some corporate ideals of citizenship. There is certainly in one or two of the foregoing dialogues enough to show that Gotama could have uttered a discourse on such a theme. Either he judged that his listeners were not ready for it, or that the occasion did not call for it. Or it maybe that his chroniclers, cut off from political interests, failed to preserve or edit such sayings. But possibly ' layman ' is susceptible, at least in our day, of a wider implication than gihi, house-man. And hence 'whole duty' were better modified as 'whole domestic and social duty.'

 

Anyway, the Buddha's doctrine of love and goodwill between man and man is here set forth in a domestic and social ethics with more comprehensive detail than elsewhere. In a Canon compiled by members of a religious order and largely concerned with the mental experiences and ideals of recluses, and with their outlook on the world, it is of great interest to find in it a Sutta entirely devoted to the outlook

 

1 Cf. the abstract in Rhys Davids's Buddhism, London, 1907.

 

and relations of the layman on and to his surroundings. And the discourse was felt to possess this interest in the long past by Buddhaghosa, or by the tradition he handed on, or by both. In this Sutta, he writes, ' nothing in the duties of housemen is left unmentioned. This Suttanta is called the Vinaya of the Houseman. Hence in one who practises what he has been taught in it, growth is to be looked for, and not decay.' And truly we may say even now of this Vinaya, or code of discipline, so fundamental are the human interests involved, so sane and wide is the wisdom that envisages them, that the utterances are as fresh and practically as binding to-day and here as they were then at Rajagaha. ' Happy would have been the village or the clan on the banks of the Ganges, where the people were full of the kindly spirit of fellow-feeling, the noble spirit of justice which breathes through these naive and simple sayings.'1 Not less happy would be the village, or the family on the banks of the Thames to-day, of which this could be said.

 

The object of the young Sigala's open-air matins will seem unfamiliar to the readers who are more accustomed to the names of Vedic deities surviving in the allusions scattered throughout these dialogues — to Brahma and Prajapati, Indra and Soma, Varuna and Isana.2 He was probably no brahmin, or we might have found him tending Agni's perpetual fire, or bathing his conscience clean in some stream of symbolical efficacy. The Commentary does not help us. The historical sense had not developed when the great commentators wrote, and they are incurious as to beliefs and rites that were possibly no longer alive at least in their own environment. It is a noteworthy instance of this that Buddhaghosa is silent regarding the deities just named, when he is commenting on the Tevijja-Suttanta, as well as on the string of tremendous attributes ascribed to Great Brahma in the Kevaddha- Suttanta that comes before it. We may picture him as we would a mediaeval Christian exegetist. In his milieu, Indian or Singhalese, a certain cosmology had long been traditional and orthodox. Outside it there were now other cults, pantheistic, polytheistic, atheistic. He doubtless held that discussion on the gods of these or older alien cults was as superfluous asdiscussion on Baal or Jupiter might have seemed to his Christian colleague. The only deva of whom, in the Kevaddha-Suttanta he has anything to say is Sakka (concerning whom the text is silent). And Sakka was just the quasi- human governor in the nearest, lowest heaven after earth.

 

1 Rhys Davids (op. cit.), p. 148.

 

2 Cf. I, 310.

 

For Buddhaghosa the heavens were filled, not with gods in our sense of the word, but, at least as to those mentioned in that Sutta, with devas who are one in kind with ourselves, and who will in due time become once more men and women on earth, such as they have already been times without number, unless they, in their upward way, have attained to the Never-returner's stage of advancement.

 

But we, more curious than the Commentators, may find evidence in Brahmanic literature that the quarters or regions of the external world (di sa), or mighty spirits inhabiting them were invoked for protection generally, and especially in battle, for luck and against snakes, etc. In the Atharva-veda (III, 26, 27) are two of such rakshamantras (guarding runes) or parittas, as they are called by Buddhists (see the following Suttanta). Here we have the same six regions — viz., the four cardinal points, the fixed and the upward regions.

 

Ye gods that are in the Eastern quarter, missiles by name, of you there the arrows are fire ! Do ye be gracious to us, do ye bless us ! To you be there homage ! To you there Hail ! etc.1

 

No. 27 identifies a god with each region, not the Four Kings of Buddhist cosmology 2 but Agni, Indra, Varuna, Soma, Visnu, Brihaspati. To their jaws the invoker consigns his enemies. In the Satapatha Brahmana 3 five, and also seven disa's as well as four are mentioned in rites. In the Grihya Sutras 4 the four quarters are to be worshipped in connection with certain rites. And so much self-anointing or contact with water is enjoined that the lay celebrant may well have had both hair and garments wet as Sigala had.

 

Hence it may well be that there was nothing eccentric or even unusual in these orisons of the filially-minded ' householder's son,' as he is called. It is true that the Commentary speaks of his being asked, What are you doing ? But the Master asks only. Why are you worshipping so the several quarters ? If he was interrupted and shown a better channel for the sending forth of his votive gestures, this was because the hour had come when the Exalted One saw him. Saw him not then only, is the Comment, but at dawn already had the Teacher, surveying the world with the Buddha-vision, seen him so engaged and had decided that ' this day will I

 

1 Whitney- Lanman translation, Harvard O. S. 7, p. 131 f.

 

2 Cf. above II, 242, 259 ; next Suttanta.

 

3 S.B.E. XII, 382; XLIII, 277, 314.

 

4 S.B.E. XXIX, 320, cf. 232; XXX, 171, 194, 213, 278. These Sutras contain the rules of Vedic domestic ceremonies. Grihya means houseness.

 

discourse to Sigala on the layman's Vinaya. That discourse will be of benefit to many folk. There must I go.' And so he passed by him going to Rajagaha for alms. And when Sigala saw him standing near, ' the Exalted One, like a great lotus expanding at the touch of the rays of the sun, opened his mouth and spoke.'

 

The conversion from the invoking of animistically conceived nature-forces to that loving service to fellow-beings which is the truest worship of Deity, was the more easily effected because Sigala's own convictions were not involved. The Commentary expands his own words by relating that his parents were pious upasakas (lay followers), but could not persuade their son to accompany them to hear the good Doctrine. Nay, he would say, ' I'll have naught to do with Samanas. Doing homage to them would make my back ache, my knees stiff. I should have to sit on the ground and soil and wear out my clothes. And when at the conversations with them, after so sitting, one gets to know them, one has to invite them and make them presents, and so one only loses by it.' Finally the father on his deathbed bethought him of a pious ruse. If he, an u p a s a k a's son, were daily to practise disa-worship, the Master or his disciples would be sure to see him and teach him better things. And since deathbed wishes are to be remembered, the son remembered and obeyed.

 

The standpoint taken in this charming code of domestic and other relations, and the reciprocal duty resulting there- from, calls here for just one remark. It will be noticed that in summing up the latter, the parable of the six-quarter-worship is maintained throughout. As good and loving gods take compassion upon (anukampa n t i) their sincere devotees, who wait upon them with offerings material and spiritual, so in all the six relations adduced the seniors are represented functioning as little gods, the juniors or subordinates as devotees. The one exception may be in the case of friends equal in age and other respects. The word expressing the duty towards the six seniors: p ace u p at th at abb a (the passive gerund) is rare,^ but its meaning is clearly that of attendance in tending. Etymologically it is to be re-as-sisted. Anukampanti is the type-word for the protecting tenderness of the stronger for the weaker, and means vibrating along-after. It thus in emotional force is even stronger than our com-passion or sym-pathy. And because the pulsing emotion is other-regarding, a feeling-together what-

 

1 Cf. above II, 84 f. rendered ' persevere in kindness towards. '

 

ever the loved one feels, it is justifiable to render it often by love, thus taking the smaller concept up into the greater. Gotama frequently claims to feel this godlike emotion : —

 

Hitanukampi Sambuddho yad-aimai) anusasati

 

Love and compassion doth tli Enlightened feel

Towards another when he teacheth him 1

 

In the attitude of parent to child love is at bottom a tender compassion, a vibrant care to protect. So wife-love is largely motherly. Parent, wife, friend, master, teacher and religieux all rank, in Gotama's social Vinaya, and for that matter in that of India generally, as little gods, so great is the responsibility attaching to these six positions, so fine is the opportunity for exercising compassion, tender care, protection. In the six reciprocal aspects there is an element of childhood. The child under loving compassionate protection feels safe and confident as does the believing worshipper. And ideally, such childlike security and confidence is the attitude of student to teacher, husband to wife, friend to friend, servant to master.

 

 

C. A. F. R. D.

 

1 Kindred Sayings I, 139; of. 264.

 

 

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SIGALOVADA SUTTANTA

 

THE SIGALA HOMILY

 

[180] Thus have I heard: —

 

1. The Exalted One was once staying near Rajagaha in the Bamboo Wood at the Squirrels' Feeding ground.

 

Now at this time young Sigala, 1 a householder's son, rising betimes, went forth from Rajagaha, and with wet hair and wet garments and clasped hands uplifted, paid worship to the several quarters of earth and sky : — to the east, south, west, and north, to the nadir and the zenith.

 

2. And the Exalted One early that morning dressed himself, took bowl and robe and entered Rajagaha seeking alms. Now he saw young Sigala worshipping and spoke to him thus : —

 

Why, young householder, do you, rising betimes and leaving Rajagaha, with wet hair and raiment, [181] worship the several quarters of earth and sky?

 

Sir, my father, when he was a-dying, said to me : Dear son, you should worship the quarters of earth and sky. So I, sir, honouring my father's word, reverencing, revering, holding it sacred, rise betimes and, leaving Rajagaha, worship on this wise.

 

But in the religion of an Ariyan, young householder, the six quarters should not be worshipped thus.

 

How then, sir, in the religion of an Ariyan, should the six quarters be worshipped ?

 

It would be an excellent thing, sir, if the Exalted One would so teach me the doctrine according to which, in the religion of an Ariyan, the six quarters should be worshipped.

 

1 The MSS. call him Singalo, Sigalo (both variants of the Pali for jackal) and Singalako, which has merely the affix of agency, of the adjective (cf. Greek -ko5, Latin -cus) or of the diminutive. The Singhalese MSS. mostly read Sigala.

 

Hear then, young householder, give ear to my words and I will speak.

 

So be it, sir, responded young Sigala. And the Exalted One said : —

 

3. Inasmuch, young householder, as the Ariyan disciple has put away the four vices in conduct, inasmuch as he does no evil actions from the four motives, 1 inasmuch as he does not pursue the six channels for dissipating wealth, he thus, avoiding these fourteen evil things, is a coverer 2 of the six quarters ; he has practised so as to conquer both worlds ; he tastes success 3 both in this world and in the next. At the dissolution of the body, after death, he is reborn to a happy destiny in heaven. What are the four vices of conduct that he has put away ? The destruction of life, the taking what is not given, licentiousness, and lying speech. These are the four vices of conduct that he has put away.

 

Thus spake the Exalted One. 4. And when the Blessed One had thus spoken, the Master spake yet again : —

 

[182] Slaughter of life, theft, lyings adultery: —

To these no word of praise the wise award.

 

5. By which four motives does he do no evil deed ? Evil deeds are done from motives of partiality, enmity, stupidity and fear. But inasmuch as the Ariyan disciple is not led away by these motives, he through them does no evil deed.

 

Thus spake the Exalted One. 6. And when the Blessed One had thus spoken, the Master spake yet again : —

 

Whoso from partiality or hate

Or fear or dulness doth trangress the Norm,

Alt minished good name and fame become

As in the ebbing month the waning moon.

 

1 Than an i.

 

2 I.e , includes, embraces.

 

3 Araddho

 

Whoso from partiality or hate

Or fear or dulness doth transgress the Norm

Perfect and full good name and fame become

As in the brighter half the waxing moon.

 

7. And which are the six channels for dissipating wealth ? The being addicted to intoxicating liquors 1 frequenting the streets at unseemly hours, haunting fairs, the being infatuated by gambling, associating with evil companions, the habit of idleness.

 

8. There are, young householder, these six dangers through the being addicted to intoxicating liquors : — actual loss of wealth, increase of quarrels, susceptibility to disease, loss of good character, [183] indecent exposure, impaired intelligence.

 

9. Six, young householder, are the perils from frequenting the streets at unseemly hours : — he himself is without guard or protection and so also are wife and children ; so also is his property ; he moreover becomes suspected [as the doer] of [undiscovered] crimes, 2 and false rumours fix on him, and many are the troubles he goes out to meet.

 

10. Six, young householder, are the perils from the haunting of fairs : — [He is ever thinking] where is there dancing ? where is there singing ? where is there music .? where is recitation ? where are the cymbals ? where the tam-tams ? 3

 

11. Six, young householder, are the perils for him who is infatuated with gambling : as winner he begets hatred ; when beaten he mourns his lost wealth ; 4 his actual substance is wasted ; his word has no weight in a court of law ; he is despised by friends and officials ; he is not sought after by those who would give or take

 

1 The Corny, distinguishes five kinds of sura, and says that meraya is asava. So also the old Corny, at Vin. lY. no.

 

2 So the Corny. : — crimes committed by some thief or adulterer are fathered on him. See Iti-vuttaka, § 76.

 

3 Cf. on shows and these last two terms, symbolical of performances, acrobatic, etc. Dialogues I, 7 f.

 

4 Read vittam. Cf. S. 1. 123. Kindred Sayings, p. 153, n 3

 

in marriage, for they would say that a man who is a gambler cannot afford to keep a wife.

 

12. Six, young householder, are the perils from associating with evil companions : any gambler, any libertine, any tippler, any cheat, any swindler, any man of violence is his friend and companion.

 

[184] 13. Six, young householder, are the perils of the habit of idleness : — he says, it is too cold, and does no work. He says, it is too hot, and does no work ; he says, it is too early . . . too late, and does no work. He says, I am too hungry and does no work . . . too full, and does no work. And while all that he should do remains undone, new wealth he does not get, and such wealth as he has dwindles away.

 

Thus spake the Exalted One. 14. And when the Blessed One had thus spoken, the Master spake yet again : —

 

Some friends are bottle-comrades ; some are they

Who [to your face] dear friend ! dear friend ! will say.

Who proves a comrade in your hour of need,

Him may ye rightly call a friend indeed.

 

Sleeping when sun has risen, adultery,

Entanglement in strife, and doing harm.

Friendship with wicked men, hardness of heart

These causes six to ruin bring a man.

 

Is he of evil men comrade and friend,

Doth he in evil ways order his life.

Both from this world and from the world to come

To woeful ruin stick a man doth fall.

 

Dicing and women, drink, the dance and song,

Sleeping by day, prowling around at night, 1

Friendship with wicked men, hardness of heart : —

These causes six to ruin bring a man.

 

Playing with dice, drinking strong drink, he goes

To women dear as life to other men.

Following the baser, not th’ enlightened minds.

He wanes as in the darker half the moon.

 

1 Lit. unseasonably.

 

The tippler of strong drink, poor, destitute,

Athirst while drinking, haunter of the bar,

As stone in water so he sinks in debt ;

Swift will he make his folk without a name.

 

[185] One who by habit in the day doth sleep,

Who looks upon the flight as time to arise 1

One who is ever luanton, filed with wine.

He is not fit to lead a household life.

 

Too cold ! too hot ! too late ! such is the cry.

And so past men who shake off work that waits

The opportunities for good pass by.

But he who reckons cold and heat as less

Than straws, doing his duties as a man,

He nowise falls away from happiness. "2

 

15. Four, O young householder, are they who should be reckoned as foes in the likeness of friends ; to wit, a rapacious person, the man of words not deeds, the flatterer, the fellow-waster.

 

16. Of these the first is on four grounds to be reckoned as [186] a foe in the likeness of a friend : — he is rapacious ; he gives little and asks much ; he does his duty out of fear ; he pursues his own interests.

 

17. On four grounds the man of words, not deeds, is to be reckoned as a foe in the likeness of a friend : — he makes friendly profession as regards the past ; 3 he makes friendly profession as regards the future ; he tries to gain your favour by empty sayings ; when the opportunity for service has arisen he avows his disability.4

 

1 B. paraphrases by rattiim anutthana-silena: by habit rises not at night.

 

2 These last six lines are identical (with one or two slight variations) with verses ascribed in Psalms of the Brethren,. No. 74, to Matanga.

 

3 Such as a supply of rice was put by for you ; we sat watching the road, but you did not come, and now it is gone bad. In the next case a present of corn is spoken of in the future. Corny.

 

4 Such as, you want a cart, and his has a wheel off, or a. broken axle. Corny.

 

18. On four grounds the flatterer is to be reckoned as a foe in the likeness of a friend : — he both consents to do wrong,1 and dissents from doing right;2 he praises you to your face ; he speaks ill of you to others.

 

19. On four grounds the fellow-waster companion is to be reckoned as a foe in the likeness of a friend : — he is your companion when you indulge in strong drmks ; he is your companion when you frequent the streets at untimely hours ; he is your companion when you haunt shows and fairs ; he is your companion when you are infatuated with gambling.

 

Thus spake the Exalted One. And (20) when the Blessed One had thus spoken, the Master spake yet again : —

 

The friend who’s ever seeking what to take,

The friend whose words are other than his deeds,

The friend who flatters, pleasing you withal.

The boon companion down the errant ways : —

These four are foes. Thus having recognized.

Let the wise man avoid them from afar

As they were path of peril and of dreads 3

 

[187] 21. Four, O young householder, are the friends who should be reckoned as sound at heart 4: — the helper ; the friend who is the same in happiness and adversity ; the friend of good counsel ; the friend who sympathizes.

 

22. On four grounds the friend who is a helper is to be reckoned as sound at heart : — he guards you when

 

1 With respect to taking life, etc., to whatever you propose to do, he consents saying : Good, friend, let's do it. With respect to right acts, the same method applies. Corny.

 

2 The MSS. are equally divided between consents and dissents (anujanati, nanujanati). Childers translates as from an uj ana t i .

 

3 These verses are quoted at Jataka II, 390, where Dr. Rouse has a charming version.

 

4 S u h a d a .

 

you are off your guard, 1 he guards your property when you are off your guard ; he is a refuge to you when you are afraid ; when you have tasks to perform he provides a double supply [of what you may need].2

 

23. On four grounds the friend who is the same in happiness and adversity is to be reckoned as sound of heart : — he tells you his secrets ; he keeps secret your secrets ; in your troubles he does not forsake you ; he lays down even his life for your sake.

 

24. On four grounds the friend who declares what you need to do is . . . sound of heart : — he restrains you from doing wrong ; he enjoins you to [do what is] right ; he informs you of what you had not heard before ; he reveals to you the way to heaven.

 

25. On four grounds the friend who sympathizes is to be reckoned as sound at heart : — he does not rejoice over your misfortunes ; he rejoices over your prosperity ; he restrains anyone who is speaking ill of you ; he commends anyone who is praising you.

 

Thus spake the Exalted One, 26. And when the Blessed One had thus spoken, the Master spake yet again : —

 

[188] The friend who is a helpmate, and the friend

Of bright days and of dark, and he who shows

What 3 is you need, and he who throbs for you

With sympathy 3: — these four the wise should know

As friends, and should devote himself to them

As mother to her own, her bosom's child.

 

Whoso is virtuous and intelligent,

Shines like a fire that blazes [on the hill] 4

 

1 If he sees you fallen down anywhere in the village after drinking spirits, he sits down by you till you wake, lest your cloak should be stolen. Corny.

 

2 If you go to him burdened with a commission involving outlay, he presses you to accept double what you will require to spend. Corny.

 

3 The literal sense of anu-kamp-ako is one who vibrates because of. See p. 171 f.

 

4 On a hill in the night. Corny,

 

To him amassing wealth, like roving bee

Its honey gathering [and hurting naught] 1

Riches mount up as ant-heap growing high.

When the good layman wealth has so amassed

Able is he to benefit his clan.

In portions four let him divide that wealth.

So binds he to himself life’s friendly things 2

 

One portion let him spend and taste the fruit 3

His business to conduct let him take two.

And portion four let him reserve and hoard ;

So there’ll be wherewithal in times of need.

 

27. And how, O young householder, does the Ariyan disciple protect the six quarters ? The follow ing should be looked upon as the six quarters : — parents as the east,4 [189] teachers as the south, wife and children as the west, friends and companions as the north, servants and work people as the nadir, religious teachers and brahmins as the zenith.

 

28. In five ways a child should minister to his parents as the eastern quarter : — Once supported by them I will now be their support ; I will perform duties incumbent on them ; I will keep up the lineage and tradition 5 of my family ; I will make myself worthy of my heritage.

 

1 Thus Buddhaghosa prettily amplifies, taking the idea perhaps from Dhammapada, ver. 49.

 

2 Mittani. Cf. S. I, 214. The Comy. explains by m i tt e , friends.

 

3 Which portion is to serve for doing good ? asks B. The first ; with it he can both give gifts to veligieux and the destitute, and can pay wages to weavers, bathmen, etc. ffor personal services as distinct from trade dealings].

 

4 The symbolism is deliberately chosen : as the day in the East, so life begins with parents' care ; teachers' fees and the South are the same word : d a k k h i n a ; domestic cares follow when the youth becomes man, as the West holds the later day- light ; North is ' beyond,' so by help of friends, etc., he gets beyond troubles.

 

5 Kula-vaijsa implies both. B. explains it as not dissipating property, restoring, if need be, the family honour and integrity, and maintaining gifts to religieux.

 

In five ways parents thus ministered to, as the eastern quarter, by their child, show their love 1 for him : — they restrain him from vice, they exhort him to virtue, they train him to a profession, 2 they contract a suitable marriage for him, and in due time 3 they hand over his inheritance.

 

Thus is this eastern quarter protected by him and made safe and secure.

 

29. In five ways should pupils minister to their teachers as the southern quarter : by rising (from their seat, in salutation) by waiting upon them, by eager- ness to learn, 4 by personal service, and by attention when receiving their teaching.

 

And in five ways do teachers, thus ministered to as the southern quarter by their pupils, love their pupil : — they train him in that wherein he has been well trained ; they make him hold fast that which is well held ; they thoroughly instruct him in the lore of every art ; they speak well of him among his friends and companions. They provide for his safety in every quarter.

 

Thus is this southern quarter protected by him and made safe and secure.

 

[190] 30. In five ways should a wife as western quarter be ministered to by her husband : — by

 

1 Anukampanti, and so below. See p. 179, n. i.

 

2 To conveyancing, or as an accountant, etc., according to the family tradition. Corny.

 

3 Both on suitable occasions and at death.

 

4 Childers has obedience. This is quite wrong. Considering the enormous importance attached in the autocratic states and religious Orders of Europe to obedience, it is most worthy of notice that obedience does not occur in Buddhist ethics. It is not mentioned in any one of the 227 rules of the Buddhist Order. It does not occur in any one of the clauses of this summary of the ethics of the Buddhist layman, and it does not enter into any one of the divisions of the Eightfold Path nor of the thirty-seven constituent qualities of Arahantship. Hence no member of the Buddhist order takes any vow of obedience ; and the vows of a Buddhist layman ignore it. Has this been one of the reasons for the success of Buddhism ? It looked beyond obedience.

 

respect, by courtesy, by faithfulness, by handing over authority to her, by providing her with adornment.

 

In these five ways does the wife, ministered to by her husband as the western quarter, love him : — her duties are well performed, by hospitality to the kin of both, by faithfulness, by watching over the goods he brings, and by skill and industry in discharging all her business.

 

Thus is this western quarter protected by him and made safe and secure.

 

31. In five ways should a clansman minister to his friends and familiars as the northern quarter : — by generosity, courtesy and benevolence, by treating them as he treats himself, and by being as good as his word.

 

In these five ways thus ministered to as the northern quarter, his friends and familiars love him : — they protect him when he is off his guard, 1 and on such occasions guard his property ; they become a refuge in danger, they do not forsake him in his troubles, and they show consideration for his family.

 

Thus is the northern quarter by him protected and made safe and secure,

 

32. In five ways does an Ariyan master 2 [191] minister to his servants and employees as the nadir : — by assigning them work according to their strength; by supplying them with food and wages ; by tending them in sickness ; by sharing with them unusual delicacies ; by granting leave at times. 3

 

In these ways ministered to by their master, servants and employees love their master in five ways : — they rise before him, they lie down to rest after him ; they are content with what is given to them ; they do

 

1 See above § 22.

 

2 Ayirakena or ayyirakena. B. is silent as to this unusual term. Cf. Jat. II, 3-1.9. On the metathesis cf. Ed. Miiller, Pali Gram., p. 49.

 

3 I.e., constant relaxation so that they need not work all day, and special leave with extra food and adornment for festivals, etc. Corny.

 

their work well ; and they carry about his praise and good fame.

 

Thus is the nadir by him protected and made safe and secure.

 

33. In five ways should the clansman minister to recluses and brahmins as the zenith : — by affection in act and speech and mind ; by keeping open house to them, by supplying their temporal needs.

 

Thus ministered to as the zenith, recluses and brahmins show their love for the clansman in six ways : —

they restrain him from evil, they exhort him to good, they love him with kindly thoughts ; they teach him what he had not heard, they correct and purify what he has heard, they reveal to him the way to heaven.

 

Thus by him is the zenith protected and made safe and secure.

 

Thus spake the Exalted One. And when the Blessed One had so spoken, the Master said yet further : —

 

Mother and father are the Eastern view,

And teachers are the quarters of the South.

[192] And wife and children are the Western view,

And friends and kin the quarter to the North ;

Servants and working folk the nadir are,

And overhead the brahmin and recluse.

These quarters should be worshipped by the man

Who fitly ranks as houseman in his clan.

 

He that is wise, expert in virtue’s ways,

Gentle and in this worship eloquent 1

Humble and docile., he may honour win.

Active in rising, foe to laziness,

Unshaken in adversities, his life

Flawless, sagacious, he may honour win.

If he have winning ways 2 and maketh friends,

 

1 B. thus interprets patibhanava in this connexion, viz,, on the occasion of worshipping the quarters.

 

2 I.e., the four bases of popularity, says B. These are liberality, affability, beneficence, impartiality (cf. Childers s.v., sangaha, above, p. 145).

 

Makes welcome with kind words and generous heart, 1

And call he give sage counsels and advice.

And guide his fellows, he may honour win.

 

The giving hand, the kindly speech, the life

Of service, impartiality to one

As to another, as the case demands : —

These be the things that make the world go round" 2

As linchpin serves the rolling of the car.

And if these things be not, no mother reaps

The honour and respect her child should pay.

Nor doth the father win them through the child.

And since the wise rightly appraise these things,3

[193] They win to eminence and earn men’s praise.

 

When the Exalted One had thus spoken, Sigala the young householder said this : — Beautiful, lord, beautiful ! As if one should set up again that which had been overthrown, or reveal that which had been hidden, or should disclose the road to one that was astray, or should carry a lamp into darkness, saying They that have eyes will see ! Even so hath the Truth been manifested by the Exalted One in many ways. And I, even I, do go to him as my refuge, and to the Truth and to the Order. May the Exalted One receive me as his lay-disciple, as one who has taken his refuge in him from this day forth as long as life endures.

 

Here ends the Sigalovada Suttanta.

 

1 = A pada in S. I, 34. There and here, with different illustrations, B. explains vad an n u, makes welcome. . . .

 

2 So B. : given these qualities the world goes round. Cf. the French adage : C'est I'amour, qui fait le monde a la ronde.

 

3 Sam a vekk h an t i .

 

 


 

Source: “Dialogues of the Buddha, Translated from the Pali of the Digha Nikaya by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids Part III”, 1921


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