DASUTTARA SUTTANTA

 

THE TENFOLD SERIES1

 

Thus have I heard :

 

1, I. The Exalted One was once staying at Campa, 2 on the banks of Lake Gaggara, with a great company of the brethren, about five hundred in number. There the venerable Sariputta addressed them, saying, ' Friends, brethren !' ' Yes, friend,’ responded the brethren. And the venerable Sariputta spake thus : —

 

In groups from one to ten will I declare

The Norm, that so ye may Nibbana win,

That ye may make an end of ill and pain,

That ye may be from every bond set free.

 

I.

 

2. There is One thing, 3 friends, that helpeth much, One thing that is to be developed, One that is to be understood, One that is to be eliminated, One that belongs to disaster, One that leads to distinction. One that is hard to penetrate, One that is to be brought to pass. One that is to be thoroughly learnt, One that is to be realized.

 

i. Which One thing helpeth much ? Zeal in things that are good.

 

ii. Which One thing is to be developed?4 Mindfulness with respect to the bodily factors, accompanied by pleasurable feeling.

 

iii. Which One thing is to be understood? Contact as a condition of intoxicants (Asavas) and of grasping.

 

1 This is not a literal rendering. Plus-up-to-ten is a little nearer, but uncouth. So we have not tried to be literal.

 

2 Pronounced Champa.

 

3 D ham ma. Anything as presented to the mind is a d h a m m a. We have no parallel word.

 

4 Or ' made to grow ' (v a d d h e t a b b o = b h a v e t a b b o).

 

[273] iv. Which One thing is to be eliminated ? The conceit : ' I am.'1

 

v. Which One thing belongs to decline ? Disorderly 2 thinking.

 

vi. Which One thing leads to distinction ? Orderly thinking.

 

vii. Which One thing is hard to penetrate? Immediacy of succession in mental concentration. 3

 

viii. Which One thing is to be brought to pass ? Sure and unskakeable knowledge.4

 

ix. Which One thing is to be thoroughly learnt ? All beings are maintained by causes.5

 

x. Which One thing is to be realized? Sure and unshakeable emancipation of mind.

 

Now these ten things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathugata.6

 

II.

 

3. There are Two things, friends, that help much, Two that are to be developed, etc. . . . Two that are to be realized.

 

i. Which Two help much ? Mindfulness and deliberation.

 

ii. Which Two are to be developed? Calm and insight.

 

iii. Which Two are to be understood? Mind and body.7

 

1 Rupadisu. Corny.

 

2 Ayoniso. I.e., taking the changing as permanent, etc. Corny.

 

3 Of Path, as result, after insight. Corny.

 

4 I.e., to understand when reflecting on fruition gained. This was an attribute of Emancipation (Vin. Texts, i., 97, § 29, Majjhima I. 167, etc.) and Nibbana. See (x.),

 

5 See above, p. 204.

 

6 Namely, ' under the bo-tree.' Corny. Hence, according to B., Tathagata here means clearly a Buddha, and not any Arahant.

 

7 See above, p. 205. B. passes over this answer. Element (dhatu) has here somewhat the meaning of conditions of being, e.g., water to a fish, not any one factor in such.

 

[274] iv. Which Two are to be eliminated? Ignorance and the craving for rebirth.

 

v. Which Two belong to decline ? Contumacy and friendship with evil.

 

vi. Which Tiuo lead to distinction ? Suavity and friendship with good.

 

vii. Which Two are hard to penetrate ? That which is the condition, the cause of the corruption of beings, and that which is the condition, the cause of their purification.

 

viii. Which Two are to be brought to pass ? Insight into extinction, and insight into not coming to be.

 

ix. Which Two are to be thoroughly learnt ? Two elements, to wit, the Conditioned and the Unconditioned.1

 

X. Which Two are to be realized? Supernormal knowledge 2 and emancipation.

 

Now these Twofold things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, and perfectly comprehended by the Tathugata.

 

III.

 

4. There are Three Things which help much. etc. , . . which are to be realized.

 

i. Three 3 . . . which help ninch: — intercourse with noble-minded persons, hearing the good Doctrine, progress in doctrine and minor doctrines.

 

ii. Three . . . which are to be developed: — the three modes of concentrative thought, to wit, mental application followed by sustained thought, sustained thought without mental application, concentrative thought without either.

 

1 ' Made by causes, the five aggregates ; not so made, Nibbana.' Corny.

 

2 ' V i j j a here means the threefold lore ' (an annexed Brah- manic term). Comy. Cf. above, p, 214, Iviii. ff., and below, x.

 

3 The ten questions are to be read as repeated here and below.

 

[275] iii. Three . . . which are to be understood : — three modes of feeling, to wit, pleasurable, painful, and neutral feeling.

 

iv. Three . . .which are to be eliminated : — three cravings, to wit, sensual, worldly craving, craving for rebirth, craving to end life.1

 

V. Three . . . which belong- to decline : — three roots of demerit, to wit, greed, hate, illusion.

 

vi. Three . . . which lead to distinction : — three roots of merit, to wit, disinterestedness, love, intelligence.

 

vii. Three . . . which are hard to penetrate : — three elements of deliverance, to wit, renunciation ; — this is the escape from all worldly desires ; the immaterial : — this is the escape from material things ; but whatever has become, is conditioned, has arisen from a cause : — the escape from that is cessation. 2

 

viii, Three . . . which are to be broiight to pass: — three knowledges, to wit, as to the past, the future and the present.

 

ix. Three . . . which are to be thoroughly learnt : — three elements, to wit, the element 3 of sensuous desires, of Rupa, of Arupa.4

 

X. Three . . . which are to be realized: — three branches of wisdom,'' to wit, intuition of former births, intuition of the deceases and rebirths of beings, intuition of the extinction of ' intoxicants.'

 

[276] Now these Three Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 

1 Lit. becoming-craving and contra-becoming craving. Cf. above 1, 10, xvi.

 

2 B.'s comments are purely exegetical. He calls the three escapes the Path of the Non-returner, the Path, and the Fruit of Arahantship respectively.

 

3 I.e., conditions. See above 2, ix.

 

4 I.e., the three spheres of existence, described in Bud. Psy. Eth., p. 334.

 

5 In text verbatim, as on p. 214, Iviii. See the six, p. 257 f.

 

IV.

 

5. There are Four Things, friends, that help much, that are to be developed . . . that are to be realized.

 

i. Four . . . that help much: — four 'wheels,'1 to wit, the orbit of a favourable place of residence, the orbit of association with the good, perfect adjustment of one's self, the cycle of merit wrought in the past.

 

ii. Four . . . to be developed: — the Four Applications of Mindfulness,- to wit: — Herein, friends, a brother as to the body, feelings, thought, and ideas, continues so to look upon [each of these four groups], that he remains ardent, self-possessed and mindful, and can suppress both the hankering and the dejection common in the world.

 

iii. Four . . . to be tcuderstood : — the Four Nutriments, 3 to wit, solid nutriment, gross or subtle ; contact as second, the purposes of the mind as third, [rebirth-] consciousness as fourth.

 

iv. Four . . . to be eliminated : — the Four Floods of sensuous desires, re-becoming, erroneous opinions, ignorance.

 

v. Four . . . belong to decline: — the Four Bonds . . . (similar to iv.).

 

vi. Four . . . lead to distinction: — the Four Detachments, to wit, detachment from each of the four Attachments or Bonds (v.).

 

[277] vii. Four , . . are hard to penetrate: — the Four Concentrations, to wit, that leading to decline, that leading to maintenance, that leading to distinction, that leading to Nibbana.

 

viii. Four . . . to be brought to pass : — the Four knowledges, 4 to wit, knowledge of the Doctrine, know-

 

1 Cakkani, says B., are of five kinds: wheels of wood, as in a carriage ; circlets of gems ; the [symbolic] wheel of Dhamma (righteousness or law) ; the fourfold range of postures (standing, walking, sitting, lying); the vehicles or means of success (sam- pa t ti), as here.

 

2 Cf. Vol. II. p. 327 f. ; above, p. 214 (i.).

 

3 Cf. p. 219 (xvii.). * Cf. above, p. 218 (xi.).

 

ledge of its corollaries, knowledge of what is in another's consciousness and popular knowledge.

 

ix. Four . . . to be thoroughly learnt : — the Four Ariyan Truths,1 to wit, the Ariyan Truth as to 111, and the Ariyan Truths as to the Genesis of 111, the Cessation of 111, the Path leading to the Cessation of 111.

 

X. Four . . . to be realized: — the Four Fruits of the Recluse's Life, to wit, the Fruit of each Path : — that of the Stream-winning, of Once-Returning, of Never- Returning, of Arahantship.

 

Now these Four Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 

V.

 

6. There are Five Things that help much, . . . that must be realized.

 

i. Five . . . that help much : — five factors in spiritual wrestling . . . confidence (or faith), good health, honesty, energy, insight.2

 

ii. Five . . , to be developed: — the five factors of perfect concentration, to wit, suffusion of rapture, suffusion of easeful bliss, suffusion [278] of [telepathic] consciousness, suffusion of light, and images for retrospective thought.3

 

iii. Five . . . to be understood : — the five aggregates of grasping, to wit, material qualities, feeling, perception, volitional and other complexes, consciousness.

 

iv. Five . . . to be eliminated : — the Five Hindrances, to wit, sensuality, malevolence, sloth and torpor, excitement and worry, doubt.

 

1 Saccani (sat-yani), lit. things that are. Truths is the more subjective counterpart, although the word may be objectively used.

 

2 As detailed in V, xvi of the Sangiti Sutta

 

3 The first and second are the expression of insight in the first two and first three J h an as respectively. The third expresses telepathic (thought-reading) insight. The fourth expresses the insight of the ' heavenly eye ' (clairvoyance). The fifth is insight on emerging from ecstasy.

 

v. Five . . . belonging to decline : — the five spiritual barrennesses, to wit, doubt, in the Master, etc., mutual discord.1

 

vi. Five . . . belonging to distinction: — the five spiritual faculties, to wit, faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, insight.

 

vii. Five . . . hard to penetrate . — the five elements favourable to deliverance, to wit, detachment from sensuous desires, ill will, cruelty, external objects and individuality.2

 

viii. Five . . . to be brought to pass : — the fivefold intuition of perfect concentration,^ to wit : — As a personal experience the intuition arises that (i) 'this rapture is both a present happiness and a future result of happiness;' (2) 'this rapture is Ariyan, is unworldly;' (3) [279] 'this rapture is not a pursuit of any but the noblest men ;'' 4 (4) ' this rapture is good, excellent, has won tranquillization, has attained to mental uplift and concentration, 5 and is not instigated nor opposed nor foiled; 6 (5) 'this rapture I myself with mental clarity attain, and from it with mental clarity emerge.'

 

ix. Five . . . to be thoroughly learnt : — the five occasions of emancipation ... (as on p. 229, xxv.).

 

x. Five . , . to be realized: — the five bodies of doctrine, to wit, morals, concentrative exercise, insight, emancipation, knowledge and insight requisite for emancipation. 7

 

Now these Five Things are genuine, true, thus, not

 

1 As in p. 227.

 

2 Detailed as on p. 228 (xxiv.).

 

3 S a m a d h i (includes all the stages preliminary to ecstasy). Cf. ii.

 

4 Akapuriso, 'to wit Buddhas, supermen, etc'

 

5 Of this phrase ekodibhavadhigato B. remarks: 'because the rapture has been attained by mental uplift, etc., or because of mental uplift, etc., having been attained.'

 

6 On sasankhar a seeBud. Psy. Eth., p. 34, n. I, Ofvarita-vato the readings in MSS. of the Corny, vary as much as those in the text. The only comment is paccanikadhamme g a t a t t a.

 

7 Cf. the four on p. 221.

 

Otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 

VI.

 

7. There are Six Things that help much, that are to be developed . . . realized.

 

i. Six . . . that help much : — the six occasions of fraternal living . . . [280] [detailed as on p. 231).

 

ii. Six . . . to be developed : — The six matters for recollection . . . [detailed as on p. 12)^)'

 

iii. Six . . . to be understood : — the six (organs of

sense or) fields of personal experience . . . [detailed

as on p. 230, i.).

 

iv. Six . . . to be eliminated : — the six groups of

cravings . . . [detailed as on p. 231).

 

v. Six . . . belong to decline : — the six forms of

irreverence . . . [detailed ibdi. ix.).

 

vi. Six . . . belong to distinction : — -the six forms of reverence . . . [detailed ibid.).

 

vii. Six . . . hard to penetrate : — the six elements tending to deliverance . . . [detailed as on p. 233).

 

[281] viii. Six . . . to be brought to pass : — the six chronic states . . . [detailed as on p. 234).

 

ix. Six . . . to be thoroughly learnt : — the six unsurpassable experiences : — [detailed ibid.).

 

x. Six . . . to be realized: — the six superknowledges. Herein, friends, a brother (i) enjoys the wondrous gift 1 in its various modes : — being one, he becomes many ... he becomes . . . invisible ; he goes without obstruction through a wall . . . solid ground . . . on water . . . in the sky . . . he reaches with the body up to the heaven of Brahma; (2) by deva-hearing, purified, surpassing that of men, he hears sounds both heavenly and human, far and near ; (3) by his mind he understands the minds of other beings, other persons ; he discerns the passionate mind as passionate . . , the freed mind as freed, the unfree mind as unfree ; (4) he recalls to mind the various temporary

 

1 I d d h i (Vol. 1, 88 f . ; cf. above, p. 253, x.).

 

States as he lived in days gone by, namely, one birth, or more ... in all their details and their modes ; (5) with the deva-sight, purified, surpassing that of men, he discerns the pageant of beings faring according to their deeds ; (6) he lives in the attainment, the personal knowledge and realization, through the extinction of the intoxicants, of sane and immune freedom of heart and mind.

Now these Six Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 

VII.

 

[282] 8. There are Seven Things that help much . . . that must be realized.

 

i. Seven . . . that help much : — the seven treasures, to wit: — faith . . . insight . . . (as detailed in VII, i onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

ii. Seven . . . to be developed : — the seven factors of enlightenment, to wit, mindfulness . . . equanimity . . . (as detailed ibid.).

 

iii. Seven . . . to be understood : — the seven stations of consciousness : — (i) there are beings, brethren, who are diverse both in body and in mind . . . (as detailed in VII, x onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

iv. Seven . . . to be eliminated : — the seven forms of latent bias, to wit, the bias of sensual passion . . . of ignorance (as detailed in VII, xii onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

v. Seven . . . belonging to decline : — the seven vicious qualities, to wit, want of faith ... of insight (as detailed in VII, iv onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

vi. Seven . . . belonging to increase : — the seven virtuous qualities, to wit, the opposites of the foregoing.

 

[283] vii. Seven . . . hard to penetrate : — the seven qualities of the good, to wit, knowledge of the doctrine . . . of individuals (as detailed ibid.).

 

viii. Seven . , . to be brought to pass : — the seven perceptions, to wit, that of impermanence ... of cessation (as detailed ibid.).

 

ix. Seven ... to be thoroughly understood : — the seven bases of arahantship. Herein, friends, a brother is keenly desirous of entering the training [as detailed ibid.).

 

x. Seven to be realized: — the seven powers of the Arahant. Herein, friends, for a brother who is Arahant (i) the impermanence of all conditioned things is well seen as it really is by perfect insight. This is one of his powers, on account of which he recognizes that for him the 'Intoxicants' are destroyed. (2) That sensuous worldly desires are like coals of fire"1 is well seen as it really is etc. . . . (as above) destroyed. (3) His heart is inclined to, set upon detachment ; he has made detachment its mountain-cave, its object ; his heart loves renunciation, and has become entirely non-existent for all opportunities of incoming intoxicants. This is one, etc. ... (4) the four applications of mindfulness have been developed and well developed. [284] This, etc. ... (5) so also for the five spiritual faculties, (6) the seven factors of enlightenment, (7) the Ariyan Eightfold Path. In that this and those have been developed and well developed, these are powers of the Arahant brother, on account of which he recognizes that for him the ' Intoxicants ' are destroyed.

 

Now these Seven Things are genuine, true, . . . perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 

Here endeth the first Portion for Recitation.

 

VIII.

 

2. 1. There are Eight Things that help much . . . that must be realized.

 

i. Eight that help much :—the eight conditions, the eig-ht causes which conduce to attaining- that wisdom in those fundamentals of religious life which have not been attained, to multiplying, expanding, developing,

 

1 Kama here are both the objects of desire, desires objectified, lit. object-desires (va tthukam a), and the modes of desire, or passions (k i 1 e s a k a m a). ' Coals of fire,' i.e., feverish states. Cf. Majjhima I, 130; Anguttara IV, 224; Jataka IV, 118.

 

perfecting those that have been attained. Herein, friends, ( i ) one dwells near the iMaster, or near a fellow- disciple occupying the place of teacher, whereby he is strongly established in conscientiousness, prudence, love, and respect. [285] (2) Under such circumstances he approaches his teachers from time to time and asks and considers, saying: ' Lord, how is this? What does this mean ?' And to him those reverend ones reveal what is hidden, make plain what is obscure, and dispel any doubts in perplexing matters. (3) When he has heard their doctrine, he succeeds in obtaining a double serenity, 1 that of body and of mind. (4) Moreover, friends, a brother, virtuous, habitually self- restrained with the self-restraint of the Canon law, proficient in behaviour and propriety, 2 seeing danger in the smallest offence, undertakes to train himself in the stages of the training. This is the fourth. ... (5) Moreover, friends, a brother having learnt much, bears what he has heard in mind and stores it up. And whatever doctrines, lovely in the beginning, in the middle, at the end, both in the letter and in the spirit, commend a religious life that is absolutely fulfilled and made quite pure, those doctrines are by such a brother much learnt, remembered, treasured by repetition, pondered in mind, well penetrated by intuition. 3 This is the fifth. . . . (6) Moreover, friends, a brother is habitually stirring up energy for the elimination of bad qualities, the evoking of good qualities, indomitable, strongly progressing and never shirking with respect to what is good. This is the sixth. . . . [280] (7). Moreover, friends, he is clear-minded, supremely heedful and discriminating, noting and remembering what has long since been done and spoken. This is the seventh. ... (8) Moreover, friends, a brother is habitually contemplating the rise and passing away of the five aggregates of grasping, to wit : ' Such is the material [aggregate], such its cause, its cessation.'

 

1 Vupakasa. We have not elsewhere met with this word.

 

2 Go car a: range, proper limits in thought and conduct.

 

3 Cf. above, p. 246 {2) ; cf. 230*.

 

Similarly for the four mental aggregates. This is the eighth condition, the eiohth cause of such as conduce to attaining that wisdom in the fundamentals of religious life which have not been attained, to multiplying, expanding, developing, perfecting those that have been attained.

 

ii. Eight to be developed : — the Aryan Eightfold Path, to wit, right views, intentions, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration (in VIII, ii onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

iii. Eight to be understood : — the eight matters of worldly concern, to wit, gains and losses , . . (as detailed in VIII, ix onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

iv. Eight to be eliminated : — [287] the eight wrong factors of character and conduct . . . (as detailed in VIII, i onwards of the Sangiti Sutta)

 

v. Eight . . . belonging to decline : — the eight bases of slackness : — Herein, friends, let a brother have some work todo . . . {as detailed in VIII, iv onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

vi. Eight . . . belonging to distinction : — the eight bases of setting afoot an undertaking : — Herein, friends, let a brother have some work to do . . . {as detailed in VIII, v onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

vii. Eight . . . hard to penetrate : — the eight untimely, unseasonable intervals for life in a religious order . , . {as detailed in IX, iv onwards of the Sangiti Sutta, but omitting the fourth : — ' rebirth as Asura ').

 

viii. Eight . . . to be brought to pass : — the eight thoughts of a superman.1 This Norm 1 is for one of little wants, not for one of great wants ; for one who is serenely content, not for the discontented ; for one who is detached, 2 not for one who is fond of society ; for one who is energetic, not for the slacker ; for one who has presence of mind, not a confused mind ; for one whose mind is concentrated, not distracted ; for one who has insight, not for the unintelligent ; for one who delights

 

1 The first seven are said to have been excogitated by the Thera Anuruddha. The Buddha adds the eighth, and repeats them all as a sermon to the Order. A. IV (a misprint in our text gives III), 229.

 

2 ' As to body, mind and the conditions for rebirth ' Comy.

 

not in conceit, craving and opinion, 1 not for one who delights therein.

 

ix. Eight to be thoroughly learnt: — the eight positions of mastery . . . (as detailed in VIII, x onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

[288] x. Eight to be realized :—the eight deliverances . , . (as detailed in VIII, xi onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

Now these Eight Things are genuine, true . . . perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 

IX.

 

2. There are Nine Things that help much . . . that must be realized.

 

i. Nine that help much : — the nine states of mind and body which are rooted in orderly thinking 2 : — To one so thinking, gladness arises, in him gladdened, rapture arises, his mind enraptured the body is satisfied, one whose body is thus appeased is at ease, he being happily at ease, the mind is stayed, with mind thus stayed, concentrated, he knows he sees [things] as they really are, and he thus knowing thus seeing turns in repulsion, repelled he becomes passionless ; hence he is set free.

 

ii. Nine to be developed: — the nine factors in wrestling for utter purity, to wit, the purification of morals, of the mind, of views, the purification of escaping from doubt, that of intuition and insight into what is the [genuine] path, and what is not, that of intuition and insight into progress, the purification which is intuition and insight, that which is understanding, that which is emancipation.3

 

1 Expansion of pa pane a. This term is by the Commentators usually analyzed into these three, the term itself being left unequated.

 

2 Cf. above, pp. 229, 25 t, vi.

 

3 On the later scheme of this ' purity,' cf. Compendium, p 210 f. Here the first seven are given, the eighth is omitted (panna occurs only twice in the book), the ninth is developed separately. B.'s sparse comments agree with the definitions, p. 212 f., but he refers the reader to Visuddhi Magga for more, also to the ' Ratha-Vinita,' presumably M. I, Sutta 24, especially p. 147. The last two he calls the fruition of Arahantship. The Visuddhi Magga is an expansion of just these nine heads.

 

iii. Nine to be understood : — the nine spheres inhabited by beings . . . [as detailed in VIII, iii onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

iv. Nine to be eliminated : — [289] the nine things springing- from craving, to wit, pursuit caused by craving, gain because of pursuit, decision because of gain, desire and passion because of decision, tenacity because of desire and passion, possession because of tenacity, avarice because of possession, watch and ward because of avarice, and many a bad and wicked state of things arising from keeping watch and ward over possessions : — blows and wounds, strife, contradiction and retort, quarrelling, slander and lies 1

 

v. Nine belonging to decline: — the nine bases of quarrelling, thus : — quarrelling is stirred up at the thought 'he has done me an injury . . .' (detailed ibid.).

 

vi. Nine belonging to distinction : — The nine suppressions of quarrelling . . . (detailed ibid. in the following section).

 

vii. Nine hard to penetrate : — the nine differences : — on account of difference in the [sensory] element, a different contact takes place, on account of difference in contact difference in feeling arises, hence difference in perception, 2 hence difference in purposive thought, hence difference in active desire, hence difference in greed, hence difference in pursuit, hence difference in gain,

 

viii. Nine to be brought to pass : — the nine perceptions, to wit, perception of ugliness, of death, 3 revulsion from nutriment (physical, sensory, mental),4 disaffection with everything worldly, impermanence, suffering in impermanence, [290] no-soul in that which suffers, elimination, passionlessness.

 

1 Repeated verbatim from the Maha Nidana Suttanta (Dial, II, 55, cf. footnotes ibid.).

 

2 That is, in perception with regard to sense-experience. Corny.

 

3 Intuition on contemplating death. Comy. ' Safifia' is here concept rather than percept, or perception widely understood.

 

4 On the four kinds, see p. 254.

 

ix. Nine to be thoroughly learnt : — the nine successional states, to wit, the Four Jhunas . . . (detailed as un pp. 123, 215).

 

x. Nine to be realized: — the nine successional cessations . . . (detailed as on p. 245).

 

Now these Nine Things are genuine, true . . . perfectly comprehended by the Tathugata.

 

X.

 

3. There are Ten Things that help much . . , that must be realized.

 

i. Ten that help much : — the ten doctrines conferring protection, (i) Herein, friends, a brother is virtuous, lives self-controlled . . . [as detailed in X, i onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

ii. Ten that must be developed: — the ten objects for self-hypnosis . . . (as detailed in X, ii onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

iii. Ten that must be understood : — the ten areas [of sense-contact], 1 to wit, the five organs of special sense and the five kinds of sense-objects.

 

iv. Ten that must be eliminated : — the ten wrong factors [of character and conduct], to wit, wrong views, wrong purposes, wrong speech, action and livelihood, wrong effort, mindfulness and concentrative practice, wrong knowledge, wrong emancipation. 2

 

v. Ten belonging to decline : — the ten bad channels of action, to wit, taking life . . . [as detailed in X, iii onwards of the Sangiti Sutta).

 

[291] vi. Ten belonging to distinction : — the ten good channels of action, . , . to wit, the opposites of the ten in v.).

 

vii. Ten hard to perpetrate : — the ten Ariyan methods of living. Herein, friends, a brother has got rid of five factors . . . {as detailed ibid.).

 

viii. Ten that must be brought to pass: — the ten perceptions, to wit, perception of ugliness, of death, of passionlessness, . . . (as detailed in IX, viii of this sutta), and of cessation.

 

1 Or 'fields,' or ' spheres,' Ayatan an i. Cf. Expositor I, 186.

 

2 Cf. the first eight, p. 237.

 

ix. Ten to be thoroughly learnt : — the ten causes of wearing away : — by right views wrong views are worn away ; whatever manifold bad and wicked qualities, proceeding from those wrong views, take shape, they are worn away in you. And many good qualities, caused by right views, become developed and brought to perfection. The same wearing away is wrought by the other nine factors of the tenfold Path 1 on the opposed nine wrong factors of character and conduct.2

 

[292] x. Ten to be realized : — the ten qualities of the adept, to wit, the ten factors (detailed in X, vi onwards of the Sangiti Sutta ).

 

Now these Ten Things are genuine, true, thus, not otherwise, not different, perfectly comprehended by the Tathagata.

 

Thus spake the venerable Sariputta. And pleased in mind those brethren delighted in his words.

 

Here endeth the Dasuttara-Suttanta.

 

 


 

 

Source: “Dialogues of the Buddha, Translated from the Pali of the Digha Nikaya by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids Part III”, 1921


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