Brahmajala Sutta
(Discourse on the Net of Perfect Wisdom ) 
Silakkhandha Vagga, Digha Nikaya, Suttanta Pitaka



Paribbajaka katha: about the (two) Wandering Ascetics Cula Sila (Minor Morality)
Majjhima Sila (Middle Morality) Maha Sila (Major Morality)
Exposition on Wrong Views Eighteen Wrong Views Relating to the Past
Four Kinds of Eternity View (Sassataditthi) Four Views of Eternity and Non-eternity (Ekacca Sassata Ditthi)
Four views of the world being Finite or Infinite (Antananta Ditthi)   Four Kinds of Indecisive Evasion (Amaravikkhepa Ditthi)
Two Doctrines of Non-causality (Adhiccasamuppanna Vada) Forty-four Views Relating to the Future (Aparantanuditthi)
Eight Kinds of Belief in the Non-existence of Sanna after Death - (Uddhamaghatanika Asanni Vada)   Eight Kinds of Belief in the Existence of neither Sanna nor Non-Sanna After Death (Uddhamaghatanika Nevasanni Nasanni Vada)
Seven Kinds of Belief in Annihilation (Uccheda Vada) Five Kinds of Belief in (Mundane) Nibbana as Realizable in this Very Life (Ditthadhamma Nibbana Vada)
Agitation Conditioned by Wrong Views and Craving (Paritassita Vipphandita Vara) Contact as Cause (Phassa Paccaya)
No Possibility of Feeling without Contact (Netam Thanam Vijjati Vara Of the Round of Suffering Caused by Wrong Views (Ditthigatikadhitthana Vatta Katha)

Paribbajaka katha: about the (two) Wandering Ascetics


1. Thus have I heard:

Once the Bhagava1 (the Exalted One) made a long journey from Rajagaha to Nalanda with a large company of bhikkhus2 numbering five hundred. Suppiya, a wandering ascetic, was also making a long journey from Rajagaha to Nalanda together with his pupil, the youth Brahmadatta.

In the course of the journey Suppiya, the wander ing ascetic, maligned the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways. The youth Brahmadatta, the pupil of Suppiya, however, praised the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways. Thus the teacher and the pupil, each saying things directly contradictory to the other, followed behind the Bhagava and the company of bhikkhus.

2. Then the Bhagava went up to the King's Rest House at the Ambalatthika garden to put up there with his company of bhikkhus for one night. The wandering ascetic, Suppiya, approached the same Rest House with his pupil, the youth Brahmadatta, to put up there for one night. At the garden also, the wandering ascetic, Suppiya, maligned the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways, whereas his pupil, the youth Brahmadatta, praised tho Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways. And in this manner the teachcr and the pupil were each saying things directly contradictory to the other.

3. Then, as the night ended and the day dawned, the bhikkhus congregated in the pavilion when the following conversation arose: "Friends! How wonderful!

And, indeed, how marvellous, friends, that what has never happened before has now happened! The Exalted One, the All-knowing, the All-seeing, the Homage-worthy, the Perfectly Self-Enlightened, understands with clear penetration the varied dispositions of sentient beings. (As an example of how there are varied dispositions of sentient beings, the bhikkhus continued to say:)3 This wandering ascetic, Suppiya, maligned the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways, whereas his pupil, the youth Brahmadatta., praised the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways. The teacher and the pupil, each saying things directly contradictory to the other, followed behind the Bhagava and the company of bhikkhus."

4. The Bhagava, knowing the subject of their talk4 , came to the pavilion, took the seat prepared for him and asked: "Bhikkhus! What were you talking about as you are assembled here? What was the subject of your unfinished conversation before I came?" On thus being questioned, the bhikkhus told the Bhagava thus:

"Venerable Sir! As the night ended and the day dawned, we congregated in this pavilion and the following conversation arose:

'Friends! How wonderful! And, indeed, how marvellous, friends, that what has never happened before has now happened! The Exalted One, the All-knowing, the All-seeing, the Homage-Worthy, the Perfectly Self-Enlight ened, understands with clear penetration the varied dispositions of sentient beings. This wandering ascetic, Suppiya, maligned the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways, whereas his pupil, the youth Brahmadat ta, praised the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha in many ways. The teacher and the pupil, each say ing things directly contradictory to the other, followed behind the Bhagava and the company of bhikkhus."

"This, Venerable Sir, was the unfinished conversation before the Bhagava came in.

5. Bhikkhus! if others should malign the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha, you must not feel resentment, nor displeasure, nor anger on that account.

Bhikkhus! If you feel angry or displeased when others malign the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha, it will only be harmful to you (because then you will not be able to practise the dhamma).

Bhikkhus! If you feel angry or displeased when others malign the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha, will you be able to discriminatc their good speech from bad?

"No, indeed, Venerable Sir!" said the bhikkhus.

If others malign me or the Dhamma, or the Samgha, you should explain (to them what is false as false, saying 'It is not so. It is not true. It is, indeed, not thus with us. Such fault is not to be found among us.'

6. Bhikkhus! If others should praise the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha, you should not, feel pleased, or delighted, or elated on that account.

Bhikkhus! If you feel pleased, or delighted, or elated, when others praise me, or the Dhamma, or the Samgha, it will only be harmful to you.5

Bhikkhus! If others praise me, or the Dhamma, or the Samgha, you should admit what is true as true, saying 'It is so. It is true. It is, indeed, thus with us. In fact, it is to be found among us.'


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1. Bhagava: This is the most frequently used appellation of the Buddha in the Suttanta Pitaka.

2. Bhikkhus: A bhikkhu is a member of the Buddhist Order (the Samgha).

3. As explained in the Commentary.

4. The Buddha, through his faculty of knowing other people's minds and through his omniscience, already knew all that had happened and all that had been discussed in his absence. But it was customary for him to ask the bhikkhus or lay disciples what they had been discussing, as an introduction to a discourse he would give on the subject.

5. Feeling of pleasure or delight due to faith in and devotion to the Buddha is meritorious (kusala dhamma). But when the feeling of pleasure or delight is tainted with personal attachment to the Buddha, it becomes demeritorious (akusala dhamma). Thus it will be an obstacle in practising the dhamma,and will be harmful to the striving for jhana, magga, phala.

Cula Sila
(Minor Morality)1

7. Bhikkhus! When a worldling2 praises the Tathagata3 he might do so only in respect of matters of a trifling and inferior nature, of mere morality.4 And what are those matters of a trifling and inferior nature, of mere morality, by which a worldling might praise the Tathagata?

8. Bhikkhus! In his praise of the Tathagata, a worldling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abandons all thoughts of taking life and abstains from destruction of life, setting aside the stick and sword, ashamed to do evil, and he is compassionate and dwells with solicitude for the welfare of all living beings.'

Bhikkhus! In his praise of the Tathagata, a world ling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abandons all thoughts of taking what is not given and abstains from taking what is not given. He accepts only what is given, wishing to receive only what is given. He establishes himself in purity by abstaining from committing theft.'

Bhikkhus! In his praise of the Tathagata, a world ling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abandons all thoughts of leading a life of unchastity and practises chastity, remaining virtuous and abstinent from sexual intercourse, the practice of lay people.'

9. Bhikkhus! In his praise of the Tathagata, a world ling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abandons all thoughts of telling lies and abstains from telling lies, speaking only the truth, combining truth with truth, remaining steadfast (in truth), trustworthy and not deceiving.'

Bhikkhus! In his praise of the Tathagata, a world ling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abandons all thoughts of slandering and abstains from slander. Hearing things from these people he does not relate them to those people to sow the seed of discord among them. Hearing things from those people he does not relate them to these people to sow the seed of discord among them. He reconciles those who are at variance. He encourages those who are in accord. He delights in unity, loves it and rejoices in it. He speaks to create harmony.'

Bhikkhus! In his praise of the Tathagata, a world ling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abandons all thoughts of speaking harshly and abstains from harsh speech. He speaks only blameless words, pleasing to the ear, affectionate, going to the heart, courteous, pleasing to many and heartening to many.'

Bhikkhus! In his praise of the Tathagata, a worldling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abandons all thoughts of talking frivolously and abstains from frivolous talk. His speech is appropriate to the occasion, being truthful, beneficial, consistent with the Doctrine and the Discipline, memorable, timely and opportune, with reasons, confined within limits and conducive to welfare.'

10. In his praise of the Tathagata, a world ling might say thus: 'Samana Gotama abstains from destroying all seeds and vegetation.

'Samana Gotama takes only one meal a day, not taking food at night and fasting after mid-day.

'Samana Gotama abstains from dancing, singing, music and watching (entertainments) that is a stumbling block to the attainment of morality.

'Samana Gotama abstains from wearing flowers, using perfumes and anointing with unguents.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the use of high and luxurious beds and seats.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of gold and silver.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of uncooked cereals.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of uncooked meat.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of women and maidens.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of male and female slaves.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of goats and sheep.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of chickens and pigs.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of elephants, cattle, horses and mares.

'Samana Gotama abstains from the acceptance of cultivated or uncultivated land.

'Samana Gotama abstains from acting as messenger or courier.

'Samana Gotama abstains from buying and selling.

'Samana Gotama abstains from using false weights and measures and counterfeits.

'Samana Gotama abstains from such dishonest practices as bribery, cheating and fraud.

'Samana Gotama abstains from maiming, murdering, holding persons in captivity, committing highway robbery, plundering villages and engaging in dacoity.'

O Bhikkhus! Such are things that might be said should a worldling praise the Tathagata.

End of the chapter on Minor Morality


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1. Minor Morality: The terms Minor Morality, Middle Morality and Major Morality are literal translations. These should not be taken as indicating that the latter two are higher than the first. Minor Morality is basic morality most of which is applicable to all. The other two are more comprehensive, mostly applicable to Samanas and Brahmanas.

2 Worldling: Puthujjana, one who has not attained any magga.

3. Tathagata: Lit., "Thus come or Thus gone" (following the course and the practice of the former Buddhas). This appellation, meaning he who has won the Four Noble Truths, is used frequently by the Buddha in referring to himself or to former Buddhas. The Commentary gives eight interpretations of this term.

4. Mere Morality: Morality (Sila) as such is trilling and inferior when compared with concentration (Samadhi) and wisdom (Panna)

Majjhima Sila
(Middle Morality)
11. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas (recluses in general) who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to destroying such things as seeds and vegetation. And what are such things? They are of five kinds, namely, root-germs, stem-germs, node germs, plumule-germs and seed-germs. Samana Gotama abstains from destroying such seeds and vegetation. Bhikkhus! A worldling might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

12. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in Kamma and its results), are given to storing up and using things offered, such as cooked rice, beverages, clothing, sandals, beds, unguents and eatables. Samana Gotama abstains from storing up and using such things. Bhikkhus! A worldling might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

13. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to watching (entertainments) that is a stumbling block to the attainment of morality. And what are such entertainments? They are: dancing, singing., music, shows, recitations, hand-clapping, brass-instrument-playing, drum-playing, art exhibitions, playing with an Iron ball, bamboo raising games, rituals of washing the bones of the dead, elephant-fights, horse-fights, buffalo-fights, bull-fights, goat-fights, sheep-fights, cock fights, quail-fights, fighting with quarter-staffs, boxing, wrestling, military tattoos, military reviews, route marches and troop-movements. Samana Gotama abstains from watching (entertainments) which is a stumbling block to the attainment of morality. Bhikkhus! A worldling might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

14. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in Kamma and its results), are given to gambling (and taking part in sports and games) that weakens one's vigilance (in the practice of morality). And what are such sports and games? They are: playing chess on eight-squared or ten-squared boards; playing imaginary chess using the sky as a chess-board; playing chess on moon-shaped chess boards; flipping cowries with thumb and finger; throwing dice; playing tipcat; playing with brush and paints; playing marbles; playing at whistling with bided leaves; playing with miniature ploughs; acrobatics; turning palm-leaf wheels; measuring with toy-baskets made of leaves, playing with miniature chariots; playing with small bows and arrows; alphabetical riddles; mind-reading and simulating physical defects. Samana Gotama abstains from gambling (and taking part in such sports and games) that weakens one's vigilance (in the practice of morality). A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

15. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to using high and luxurious beds and their furnishings. And what are they? They are: high couches; divans raised on sculptured legs; long-fleeced carpets; woolen coverlets with quaint (geometrical) designs; white woolen coverlets; woolen coverlets with floral designs; mattresses stuffed with cotton; woolen coverlets with pictorial designs; woolen coverlets with fringes on one or both sides; gold-brocaded coverlets; silk coverlets; large carpets (wide enough for sixteen dancing girls to dance on); saddle cloth and trappings for elephants and horses; upholstery for carriages, rugs made of black panther's hide, rugs made of antelope's hide, red canopies and couches with red bolsters at each end. Samana Gotama abstains from using such high and luxurious beds and their furnishings. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

16. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to beautifying or adorning themselves. And what are such embellishments and adornments? They are: using perfumed cosmetics, getting massaged, taking perfumed baths, developing one's physique, using mirrors, painting eye-lashes dark, decorating (oneself) with flowers, applying powder and lotion to the body, beautifying the face with powder and lotion, wearing bangles, tying the hair into a top-knot, carrying walking sticks or ornamented hollow cylinders (containing medicinal herbs) or swords, using multi-coloured umbrellas or footwear (with gorgeous designs), wearing a turban or hair-pin set with rubies, carrying a Yak-tail fan and wearing long white robes with fringes. Samana Gotama abstains from such embellishment and adornment. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

17. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to engaging themselves in unprofitable talk (that is contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana), such as talk about kings, thieves, ministers, armed forces, calamities, battles, food, drinks, clothing, beds, flowers, unguents, relatives, vehicles, villages, market-towns, cities, provinces, womenfolk, heroes, streets, water-fronts, the dead and the departed, trivialities, the universe, the oceans, prosperity, adversity, and so on*. Samana Gotama abstains from engaging himself in such unprofitable talk. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

18. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to mutually disparaging disputes. And what are they? (They are as follows:) "You do not know this Doctrine and Discipline. I know this Doctrine and Discipline. How can you ever know this Doctrine and Discipline? Your practice is wrong. My practice is right. My speech is coherent and sensible. Your speech is not coherent and sensible. What you should say first, you say last; and what you should say last, you say first. What you have long practised to say has been upset now. I have exposed the faults in your doctrine. You stand rebuked. Try to escape from this censure or explain it if you can," Samana Gotama abstains from such mutually disparaging disputes. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

19. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), are given to serving as messengers or couriers. And what are such services ? They are: going from this place to that place, or coming from that place to this place and taking things from this place to that place, or bringing things from that place to this place, on behalf of kings, ministers, brahmins, householders and youths. Samana Gotama abstains from serving as messenger or courier. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

20. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), practise deceitful pretensions (to attainments), flattery (for gain), subtle insinuation by signs and indications (for gain), Using pressure (to get offerings) and the seeking of more gain by cunning offer of gifts. Samana Gotama abstains from such pretension and flattery. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

* and so on: by this is meant 'forests, mountains, rivers and islands.'

End of the chapter on Middle Morality

Maha Sila
(Major Morality)


21. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results ), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And ,what are such low arts? They are: fortune telling from a study of physical characteristics, or of signs and omens, or of lightning; interpreting dreams; reading physiognomy; prognosticating from a study of rat-bites; indicating benefits from fire-oblation with different kinds of firewood, or with different kinds of ladle; with husks, broken rice, whole rice, clarified butter, oil, oral spells, or with blood; reading physiognomy while chanting spells; forecasting good or bad fortune from the signs and marks of a piece of land; being versed in state affairs; reciting spells in the graveyard to eliminate danger; reciting spells to overcome evil spirits; using magical formulae learnt in a mud-house; charming snakes and curing snake-bites; treating poisoning; curing scorpion-stings or rat-bites; interpreting animal and bird sounds and the cawing of crows; foretelling the remaining length of life; diverting the flight of arrows; and identifying the cries of animals. Samana Gotama abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

22. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: reading the portents of gems, dresses, sticks, daggers, swords, arrows, bows and other weapons; reading the characteristics of women, men, young men, young women, male slaves, female slaves, elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls and other cattle, goats, sheep, chickens, quails, iguanas, pointed- eared animals1,tortoises and game-beasts. Samana Gotama abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

23. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: making predictions about kings going to war; about kings coming back from war; about kings advancing in battle from their home country; about kings from foreign countries retreating; about kings from foreign countries advancing in battle; about kings retreating to their home country; about kings from their home country proving victorious; about kings from foreign countries losing battle; about kings from foreign countries winning battles; about kings in their home country losing battles; and about probabilities of victories and losses of warring kings. Samana Gotama abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. A worldling., bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

24. And. then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: making predictions about the eclipse of the moon, or of the sun; about the conjunction of a group of stars with a planet; about the correct or incorrect course of the moon, the sun and the planets; about meteors, comets, earthquakes and thunder; about the rising and setting of the moon, the sun and the planets; about the phenomena of darkness and brightness following such rising and setting; about the effects of the eclipse of the moon, or of the sun, or of the planets; about the effects of the moon or the sun taking the right course; about the effects of the moon or the sun taking the wrong course; about the effects of the planets taking the right course; about the effects of the planets taking the wrong course; about the effects of meteors, comets, and thunder; about the effects of the rising and setting of the moon, or of the sun, or of the planets; and about the effects of the phenomena of darkness or brightness following such rising and setting. Samana Gotama abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

25. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and nibbana. And what are they? They are: predicting rainfall or drought, abundance or famine, peace or calamity, disease or health; and knowledge of counting on the fingers or of arithmetical or mathematical calculations, of verification, and of treatises of controversial matters (such as the origin of the universe etc.). Samana Gotama abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

26. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: bringing the bride to the bridegroom; leading away the bride from her father's home; arranging betrothal, or divorce; making predictions relating to acquisition or distribution of property; causing gain or loss of fame and prosperity; curing the tendency to abort or miscarry; casting spells to cause immobility of the tongue or the jaws; reciting a spell to stop an attacking hand or to cause inability to speak or to hear; conducting seances with the aid of mirrors, or employing young women or female slaves as mediums; propitiating the sun or the Brahma making fire issue from the mouth by means of a spell; and making invocations to the goddess of glory. Samana Gotama abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

27. And then there are certain respected samanas and brahmanas who, living on the food offered out of faith (in kamma and its results), make a wrongful living by means of low arts contrary to correct practice conducive to the attainment of deva realms and Nibbana. And what are they? They are: propitiating the devas by promises of offerings; making offerings to devas for favours granted; causing possession by spirits or exorcising them; casting spells with magical formulae learnt in a mud-house; turning a eunuch into a man; turning a man into a eunuch; practising the art of choosing building-sites; propitiating the devas while choosing building-sites; practising the profession of mouth-washing or bathing; fire-worshipping; causing vomiting; giving purgatives; using emetics, or catharses; letting out phlegm etc. from the head; preparing ear-drops or eye drops; preparing medicinal snuff, or eye ointment to remove cataracts; preparing eye-lotions; curing cataracts; doing surgery; practising paediatrics; preparing basic drugs and dressing sores and removing the dressing. Samana Gotama abstains from making a wrongful living by such means. A worldling, bhikkhus, might praise the Tathagata in this manner.

Bhikkhus! These are the matters of a trifling and inferior nature, of mere morality, in respect of which a worldling might speak when praising the Tathagata.


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1. Pointed—eared animals: Kannika. The Commentary here says this term means pinnacles of houses or points of ear-ornaments.

End of the Chapter on Major Morality

Exposition on Wrong Views
28. Bhikkhus! Besides morality there are other dhammas1which are profound, hard to see, hard to comprehend, tranquil, noble, surpassing logic, subtle and intelligible only to the pandita, ariyas who have attained one of the four maggas. The Tathagata has set them forth after realization of these dhammas by himself through Sabbannuta Nana (Perfect Wisdom)2. Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas. And what are the dhammas which are profound, hard to see, hard to comprehend, tranquil, noble, surpassing logic, subtle and intelligible only to the ariyas?


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1. dhammas: The Commentary says that here the dhammas referred to are sabbannuta nana.

2. The Buddha's sabbannuta nana encompasses Magga Insight.


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(The Buddha answered this question by means of a graduated discourse, beginning with eighteen wrong views relating to the past as follows.)

Eighteen Wrong Views Relating to the Past
( Pubbantanuditthi )
Note: [A Synopsis is inserted here to facilitate under standing of the eighteen wrong views relating to the past.]

Synopsis of Wrong Views
The Brahmajala Sutta sets forth sixty-two kinds of wrong views which are held by Samanas and Brahmanas.

These sixty-two kinds of wrong views are classified into two categories, namely, Pubbantanuditthi and Aparantanuditthi.

Pubbantanuditthi means the group of wrong views which are based on the past existences.

Aparantanuditthi means the group of wrong views which are thoughts or speculations on the future.

Pubbantanu ditthi is further classified into five sub-categories. They are as follows:

(1) Sassata ditthi

(2) Ekacca sassata ditthi

(3) Antananta ditthi

(4) Amaravikkhepa ditthi

(5) Adhiccasamuppanna ditthi

The following are brief explanations on the above-mentioned five sub-categories.

(1) Sassata ditthi is a group of false views of eternity, which says that atta as well as loka is eternal. There are four different views in this group, namely, the first eternity view, the second eternity view, the third eternity view, and the fourth eternity view.

(2) Ekacca Sassata ditthi is a group of false views of eternity, which says that atta and loka are in some cases eternal and in other cases not eternal. There are four different dualistic views in this group, namely, the first dualistic view of eternity, the second dualistic view of eternity, the third dualistic view of eternity, and the fourth dualistic view of eternity.

(3) Antananta ditthi is a group of false views on the finiteness or otherwise of the world system (as represented by the mental image of the earth-device used in meditation). There are four different views in this group, namely, the first view which says the world system is finite, the second view which says it is infinite, the third view which says it is finite vertically and infinite horizontally, and the fourth view which says it is neither finite nor infinite.

(4) Amaravikkhepa ditthi (false views that make one sit on the fence, to be on the safe side). For example, a question is put to a person who does not know the answer. He does not want to admit that he does not know. At the same time, he fears that the wrong answer would cause him distress, which might be harmful to him. Therefore, he answers the question thus: "I don't take it this way; neither do I take it that way; and I don't take it the other way; neither do I take it not this way, nor that way, nor the other way, and also I don't take it that it is otherwise."

There are four causes that make the samanas and brahmanas in this group sit on the fence.

The first sits on the fence because of the fear that the wrong answer would cause him distress, which might be harmful to him.

The second sits on the fence because of the fear that the wrong answer might cause the arising in him of mental defilements, which would in turn cause distress that might be harmful to him.

The third sits on the fence because of the fear of his being taken to task for the wrong answer.

The fourth sits on the fence because of lack of wisdom.

(5) Adhiccasamuppanna ditthi (false views that atta as well as loka arises without a cause).

There are two groups of persons who hold this view.

(a) The persons belonging to the first group were asannasatta brahmas in their previous existence. These brahmas are so called because they are the brahmas who have only body and no mind. In order to achieve this kind of rebirth, those who are desirous of having it have to practise the Sanna viraga bhavana. In simple terms, it means bhavana for the extermination of mind. Even though it is so called, it does not exterminate mind. It only suspends the arising of mind. When the effects of Sanna viraga bhavana come to an end, the mental process that has been suspended arises generally as the patisandhi citta (the first citta) of a human being. In simple terms, it can be said thus:

When an asannasatta brahma dies, he is generally reborn as a human being. When he comes of age he may acquire through the practice of meditation a psychic power which would enable one to recall the past. Since, however, he was an asannasatta brahma in his previous existence, his psychic power cannot take him beyond his patisandhi citta. Therefore he says that atta and loka arise by themselves, without anything to cause their appearance.

(b) The persons belonging to the second group base on speculation their view that atta and loka arise without a cause.

This is the end of the synopsis on Pubbantanu ditthi, which consists of eighteen false views.

29, There are, bhikkhus, certain samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past and who adhere to views relating to it. They assert on eighteen different grounds their various wrong views based on the past. On what authority and on what basis do these respected samanas and brahmanas speculate on the past, adhere to views relating to it, and assert on eighteen different grounds their various wrong views based on the past?

Four Kinds of Eternity View
(Sassataditthi)
30. There area bhikkhus, certain samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of eternity. They give four reasons to demonstrate the eternal existence of atta as well as loka. 1 On what authority and on what basis do these respected samanas and brahmanas demonstrate on four grounds2 that atla as well as loka is eternal?

The First Category of Eternity View

31. In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. When his mind has thus gained the highest concentration, he recollects many past existences3. And what does he recollect?

He recollects one past existence, or two, or three, or four, or five, or ten, or twenty, or thirty, or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, a thousand, a hundred thousand existences, or many hundred, many thousand, many hundred thousand existences in this way: "In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. I was born in another existence. In that (new) existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished, I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in this existence." In this way he recollects many past existences together with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans).

He says thus:

"Atta as well as loka is eternal, barren,4 standing like a mountain peak and firm like a gate post. Beings transmigrate, go the round of rebirths, die and are born again. Atta or loka, however, is permanent like all things of an unchanging and enduring nature. It must be so because I have achieved utmost men tal concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. When my mind has thus gained the highest concentration, I can recollect many past existences. And what do I recollect?


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1. The Commentary explains atta as well as loka as one of the five khandhas.
The Sub-Commentary expands this by saying that (i) when the four mental khandhas are taken as atta by those who believe in atta (soul), the remaining khandha is taken as loka; or (ii) when one of the five khandhas is taken as atta, the rest of the khandhas are taken as loka; or (iii) when all the five khandhas of oneself are taken as atta, the khandhas outside oneself are taken as loka by those who believe in atta.

2. See Appendix A 1.

3. recollects many past existences: See Appendix A 2.

4. barren : just as a barren woman cannot bear any children, atta as well as loka cannot produce another atta or loka.


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I recollect one past existence, or two, or three, or four, or fives or ten, or twenty, or thirty or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, a thousand, a hundred thousand existences, or many hundred, many thousand, many hundred thousand existences in this way: 'In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. I was born in another existence. In that (new) existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I Was born in this existence.' In this way I recollect many past existences together with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans). And so I say that I know this:

Atta as well as loka is eternal, barren, standing like a mountain peak and firm like a gate post. Beings transmigrate, go the round of rebirths, die and are born again. Atta or loka, however, is permanent like all things of an unchanging and enduring nature."

Bhikkhus! This is the first line of reasoning and it is based on this, holding on to this, that certain samanas and brahmanas demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal. (1)

The Second Category of Eternity View

32. And secondly, on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas who hold the eternity view demonstrate, that atta as well as loka is eternal?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. When his mind has thus gained the highest concentration, he recollects many past existences. And what does he recollect?

He recollects one cycle of dissolution and development, or two, or three, or four, or five, or ten cycles in this way: "In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. I was born in another existence. In that (new) existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in this existence." in this way he recollects many past existences together with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans).

He says thus:

"Atta as well as loka is eternal, barren, standing like a mountain peak and firm like a gate post. Beings transmigrate, go the round of rebirths, die and are born again. Atta or loka, however, is permanent like all things of an unchanging and enduring nature. It must be so because I. have achieved utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. When my mind has thus gained the highest concentration, I can recollect many past existences. And what do I recollect?

I recollect one cycle of dissolution and development, or two, or three, or four, or five, or ten cycles in this way: 'In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. I was born in another existence. In that (new) existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in this existence.' In this way I recollect many past existences together with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans). And so I say that I know this:

Atta as well as loka is eternal, barren, standing like a mountain peak and firm like a gate post. Beings transmigrate, go the round of rebirths, die and are born again. Atta or loka, however, is permanent like all things of an unchanging and enduring nature."

Bhikkhus! This is the second line of reasoning and it is based on this, holding on to this, that certain samanas and brahmanas demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal. (2)

The Third Category of Eternity View

33. And thirdly, on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas who hold the eternity view demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or bahmana achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. When his mind has thus gained the highest mental concentration, he recollects many past existences. And what does he recollect?

He recollects ten cycles of dissolution and development, or twenty, or thirty, or forty cycles in this way: "In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. I was born in another existence. In that (new) existence, I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in this existence." In this way he recollects many past existences together with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans).

He says thus:

"Atta as well as loka is eternal, barren, standing like a mountain peak and firm like a gate post. Beings transmigrate, go the round of rebirths, die and are born again. Atta or loka, however, is permanent like all things of an unchanging and enduring nature. It must be so because I have achieved utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion mindfulness and right attentiveness. When my mind has thus gained the highest concentration, I can recollect many past existences. And what do I recollect?

I recollect ten, or twenty, or thirty or forty, cycles of dissolution and development in this way: 'In that past existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. I was born in another existence, in that (new) existence I was known by such a name. I was born into such a family. I was of such an appearance. I was thus nourished. I enjoyed pleasure thus. I suffered pain thus. My life-span was such. I died in that existence. Then I was born in this existence.' In this way I recollect many past existences together with their characteristics and related facts (such as names and clans). And so I say that I know this:

Atta as well as loka is eternal, barren, standing like a mountain peak and firm like a gate post. Beings transmigrate, go the round of rebirths, die and are born again. Atta or loka, however, is permanent like all things of an unchanging and enduring nature."

Bhikkhus! This is the third line of reasoning, and it is based on this, holding on to this, that certain samanas and brahmanas demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal. (3)

The Fourth Category of Eternity View

34. And fourthly, on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana is given to logic and investigation. He uses various methods of reasoning, conducts investigations and gives his views, saying:

'Atta as well as loka is eternal, barren, standing like a mountain peak and firm like a gate post. Beings transmigrate, go the round of rebirths, die and are born again. Atta or loka, however, is permanent like all things of an unchanging and enduring nature,'

Bhikkhus! This is the fourth line of reasoning, and it is based on this, holding on to this, that certain samanas and brahmanas demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal. (4)

35. Bhikkhus! The samanas and brahmanas who hold the eternity view demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal in the four ways thus cited above.

Bhikkhus! When any samanas and brahmanas who hold the eternity view demonstrate that atta as well as loka is eternal, all of them proffer these four, or one of these four, lines of reasoning and no other besides them.

36. Bhikkhus! The Tathagata knows the destination, the next existence in which one holding these four views would be reborn, if these views are thus held on to, if these views are thus grasped.

The Tathagata knows these four views. He also knows the dhamma which surpasses them. Knowing that dhamma, he does not view it in the wrong way1. Since he does not view it in the wrong way, he realizes by himself the extinction of defilements (i.e., greed, anger, and ignorance of the Four Ariya Truths.)

Bhikkhus! Since the Tathagata rightly knows the arising of feeling2 (vedana) and its cause, the cessation of feeling and its cause, its pleasantness, its faults, and freedom from attachment to it, he becomes liberated without any clinging, (i.e., he realizes Nibbana).

37. Thus, bhikkhus, these are the dhammas3 which are profound, hard to see, hard to comprehend, tranquil, noble, surpassing logic, subtle and intelligible only to the ariyas. The Tathagata has set them forth after realization of these dhammas by himself through Sabbannuta Nana (Perfect Wisdom). Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

End of the First Portion for Recitation (bhana vara)4

1. in the wrong way: See Appendix A 3.

2. feeling: See Appendix A 4.

3. Dhammas; See footnote of para 28.

4. bhana vara means the portion of the text which can be recited at a stretch by an average bhikkhu. If the text is in the gatha form, one bhana vara may roughly have two hundred and fifty stanzas. If it is in the prose form, it may roughly have eight thousand words.

Four Views of Eternity and Non-eternity 
(Ekacca Sassata Ditthi)
38. There are, bhikkhus, some samanas and brahmanas who, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, put forward four reasons to show that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal find in others not eternal. On what authority and on what basis do these respected samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, put forward four reasons to show that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal?

The First Category of Ekacca Sassata Ditthi

39. There, indeed, is such a time, bhikkhus, as when this world system gets dissolved, as it does at times, after a lapse of many aeons. When the world system becomes thus dissolved, beings are reborn mostly in the Abhassara2 plane of existence (of radiant Brahmas). When they are born there because of jhana mind, they are nurtured by rapture, resplendent with light from their own bodies, sojourning in the heavens and living in splendour. And they remain there for aeons.

2. Abhassara: The Abhassara plane of existence, to which Brahmas of flashing radiance belong, is the third of the three Second jhana Brahma realms in the thirty-one planes of existence. See. Appendix A5 for the thirty-one planes of existence.

40. There, indeed, is such a time, bhikkhus, as when this world system rises again, as it does at times, after a lapse of many aeons. When the world system thus rises again, there appears a palatial Brahma-abode (brahma-vimana, one or all three of Brahma realms of first jhana), void of all life. At that time, a certain being from the Abhassara plane of existence dies, either at the end of his span of life, or on the exhaustion of the stock of his meritorious deeds, and is reborn in that empty palatial Brahma realm. When he is born there because of jhana mind, he is nurtured by rapture, resplendent with light from his own body, sojourning in the heavens and living in splendour. Thus he re mains there for aeons.

41. Living there alone for aeons, there arises in him mental weariness and a longing for company thus: "Would that some other beings come to this place!" And then other beings from the Abhassara plane of existence die either at the end of their span of life, or on the exhaustion of the stock of their meritorious deeds, and are reborn in that palatial Brahma realm. When they are born there because of jhana mind, they are nurtured by rapture, resplendent with light from their own bodies, sojourning in the heavens and living in splendour. Thus they remain there for aeons.

42. Then, bhikkhus, the being who was the first to be reborn there thinks to himself thus:

"I am the Brahma, the great Brahma, the conqueror, the unconquered, the all-seeing, the subjector of all to his wishes, the omnipotent, the maker, the creator, the supreme, the controller, the one confirmed in the practice of jhana, and father to all that have been and shall be. I have created these other beings. Why can I say so? I can say so because a while ago I thought to myself: 'Would that some other beings come to this place!' As I wished so, other beings have appeared in this place."

And then other beings who appeared later think to themselves:

"This honourable personage is the Brahma, the great Brahma, the conqueror, the unconquered, the all-seeing, the subjector of all to his wishes, the omnipotent, the maker, the creator, the supreme, the controller, the one confirmed in the practice of jhana, and father to all that have been and shall be. This honourable Brahma has created us. Why can we say so? We can say so because, as we see, he appeared in this place first, whereas we appeared only after him."

43. Among them, bhikkhus, the one who appeared first lives longer, and is more beautiful and more powerful (than the others). Those beings who appeared later have a shorter life, and are less beautiful and less powerful (than the one who first appeared).

44. Then, bhikkhus, there arises this possibility. A being dies in the Brahma plane of existence and is reborn in this human world; and there he renounces the worldly life for the homeless life of a recluse. And having thus renounced the worldly life and become a homeless recluse, he achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. Having established his mind in highest concentration, he can recollect that former existence (of a Brahma); but he cannot recollect beyond that.

He says thus:

"That honourable personage is the Brahma, the great Brahma, the conqueror, the unconquered, the all-seeing, the subjector of all to his wishes, the omnipotent, the maker, the creator, the supreme, the controller, the one confirmed in the practice of jhana, and father to all that have been and shall be. That honourable Brahma has created us. He is permanent, stable, eternal, immutable and as everlasting as all things eternal. We, who were created by the honourable Brahma, are impermanent, changeable, short-lived and mortal. Thus have we come into this human world."

This, bhikkhus, is the first possibility. It is based on this, holding on to this, that some samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, propound that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal. (4+1=5)

The Second Category of Ekacca Sassata Ditthi

45. In the second category (of ekacca sassata ditthi) on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, propound that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal?

Bhikkhus! There are devas known as Khiddapadosikas who, absorbed in merry-making and pleasure-seeking for a long time, forget to take nutriment and through such forgetfulness die in that abode of the devas.

46. Then, bhikkhus, there arises this possibility. A certain being dies in that world of devas and is reborn in this human world; and there he renounces the worldly life for the homeless life of a recluse. And having thus renounced the worldly life and become a homeless recluse, he achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. Having established his mind in highest concentration, he can recollect that former existence (of a deva); but he cannot recollect beyond that.

He says thus:

"Those honourable devas, who are not Khiddapadosikas, are not absorbed in merry making and pleasure-seeking for a long time. And as they are not absorbed in merry-making and pleasure-seeking for a long time, they do not forget to take nutriment. And since they are not forgetful they do not die in that abode of the devas. They remain permanent, stable, eternal, immutable and as everlasting as all things eternal. But we Khiddapadosikas were absorbed in merry-making and pleasure-seeking for a long time; and because we were absorbed in merry-making and pleasure-seeking for a long time, we forgot to take nutriment. Through such forgetfulness we died in that world of the devas. We are impermanent, changeable, short-lived and mortal. Thus have we come into this human world."

This, bhikkhus, is the second possibility. It is based on this that some samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, propound that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal. (4+2=6)

The Third Category of Ekacca Sassata Ditthi

47. In the third category (of ekacca sassata ditthi) on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, propound that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal?

Bhikkhus! There are devas known as Manopadosikas who stare hard and long at one another (with jealousy). Staring hard and long thus at one another, they develop mutual hatred; becoming exhausted both physically and mentally, they die in that world of devas.

48. Then, bhikkhus, there arises this possibility. A certain being dies in that world of devas and is reborn in this human world; and there he renounces the worldly life for the homeless life of a recluse. And having thus renounced the worldly life and become a homeless recluse, he achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. Having established his mind in highest concentration, he can recollect that former existence (of a deva); but he cannot recollect beyond that.

He says thus:

"Those honourable devas who are not Manopadosikas do not stare hard and long at one another (with jealousy). They do not, therefore, develop mutual hatred. Not becoming exhausted both physically and mentally they do not die in that world of devas. They remain permanent, stable, eternal, immutable and as everlasting as all things eternal. But we Manopadosikas, who stared hard and long at one another (with jealousy), developed mutual hatred and became exhausted both physically and mentally. And we died in that world of devas. We are impermanent, changeable, short-lived and mortal. Thus have we come into this human world."

This, bhikkhus, is the third possibility. It is based on this that some samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, propound that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal. (4+3=7)

The Fourth Category of Ekacca Sassata Ditthi

49. In the fourth category (of ekacca sassata-ditthi) on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, propound that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal?

Bhikkhus! in this world a certain samana or brahmana is given to logic and investigation. He uses various methods of reasoning, conducts investigations and gives his views, saying :

"This which is called eye, ear, nose, tongue and the physical body is the atta which is impermanent, unstable, not eternal and mutable. But this which is called mind, thought or consciousness, is the atta which is permanent, stable. eternal, immutable and as everlasting as things eternal."

Bhikkhus! This is the fourth possibility. It is based on this that some samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, propound that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal. (4+4—8)

50. Bhikkhus! These samanas and brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, demonstrate on these four grounds that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal.

Bhikkhus! When any samanas and or brahmanas, holding the dualistic view of eternity and non-eternity, demonstrate that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal, all of them proffer these four, or one of these four, lines of reasoning and not any other line of reasoning.

51. Bhikkhus! The Tathagata knows the destination, the next existence in which one holding these four views would be reborn, if these views are thus held on to, if these views are thus grasped.

The Tathagata knows these four views. He also knows the dhamma which surpasses them. Knowing that dhamma, he does not view it in the wrong way. Since he does not view it in the wrong way, he realizes by himself the extinction of defilements (i.e., greed, anger, and ignorance of the Four Ariya Truths).

Bhikkhus! Since the Tathagata rightly knows the arising of feeling (vedana) and its cause, the cessation of feeling and its cause, its pleasantness, its faults, and freedom from attachment to it, he becomes liberated without any clinging, (i. e., he realizes Nibbana)1.

52. Thus, bhikkhus, these are the dhammas which are profound, hard to see, hard to comprehend, tranquil, noble, surpassing logic, subtle and intelligible only to the ariyas. The Tathagata has set them forth after realization of these dhammas by himself through Sabbannuta Nana (Perfect Wisdom). Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

1. The Buddha achieved four maggas, by means of four Satipatthanas. In this paragraph, the Buddha was referring to vedananupassana Satipatthana, which is one of the four.

Vdananupassana Satipatthana requires one to be mindful of feeling, whenever it appears, before any train of thought takes place. If he can do so steadfastly, he will perceive the anicca, dukkha, anatta nature of the five khandhas. This perception is conducive to the achievement of maggas.

By means of vedananupassana Satipatthana, the Bodhisatta perceived the impermanent, oppressive, soulless nature of vedana. This perception was conducive to his achievement of freedom from dukkha, where there was absolute extinction of kilesas (defilements).

This paragraph is meant to disillusion those who believe "vedana (feeling)" to be atta.

Four views of the world being Finite or Infinite 
(Antananta Ditthi)
53. There are, bhikkhus, some samanas and brahmanas, who hold that the world is finite. There are also samanas and brahmanas, who hold that the world is infinite. They put forward four grounds to support their respective views. On what authority and on what basis do these respected samanas and brahmanas put forward four grounds to support their respective views

The First Antananta Ditthi 
54. In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. Having thus established his mind in highest concentration, he abides in the view that the world (as represented by the purified mental image, patibhaga nimitta, of the earth-device used in meditation) is finite.

He says thus:

"This world is finite. It is circumscribed. Why can it be said so? It can be said so because having achieved utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness, and having established my mind in highest concentration, I abide in the view that the world is finite. Based on this I know that the world is finite and that it is circumscribed."

This, bhikkhus, is the first possibility. Basing themselves on this authority and on this ground, some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is finite, and some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is infinite, demonstrate their respective points of view— the finiteness or the infiniteness of the world. (8+1=9)

The Second Antananta Ditthi 
In the second category of antananta ditthi, on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas propound either that the world is finite or that the world is infinite?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samanas or brahmanas achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. Having thus established his mind in highest concentration, he abides in the view that the world (as represented by the purified mental image of the earth-device used in meditation) is infinite.

"This world is infinite, with no limit. Those samanas and brahmanas who assert that the world is finite and that it is circumscribed are wrong in fact, this world is infinite, with no limit. Why can it be said so? It can be said so because having achieved utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness, and having established my mind in highest concentration, I abide in the view that the world is infinite. Based on this I know that the world is infinite, with no limit."

This, bhikkhus, is the second possibility. Basing themselves on this authority and on this ground, some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is finite, and some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is infinite, demonstrate their respective points of view—the finiteness or the infiniteness of the world. (8+2=10)

The Third Antananta Ditthi
56. In the third category of antananta ditthi, on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas propound either that the world is finite or that the world is infinite?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samanas or brahmanas achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. Having thus established his mind in highest concentration, he abides in the view that the world (as represented by the purified mental image of the earth-device used in meditation) is finite vertically, but infinite horizontally.

He says thus:

"This world is finite, and, at the same time, infinite. Those samanas and brahmanas who assert that the world is finite and is circumscribed are, wrong. And so are the samanas and brahmanas who assert that the world is infinite, with no limit. Why can it be said so? It can be said so because having achieved utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness, and having established my mind in highest concentration, I abide in the view that the world is finite vertically, and is infinite horizontally. Based on this I know that the world is finite, and, at the same time infinite."

This, bhikkhus, is the third possibility. Basing themselves on this authority and on this ground, some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is finite, and some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is infinite, demonstrate their respective points of view—the finiteness or the infiniteness of the world. (8+3=11)

The Fourth Antananta Ditthi 
57. In the fourth category of Antananta Ditthi on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas propound either that the world is finite or that the world is infinite?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samanas or brahmanas is given to logic and investigation. He uses various methods of reasoning, conducts investigations and gives his views, saying:

"This world is neither finite nor infinite. Those samanas and brahmanas who assert that the world is finite and that it is circumscribed are wrong. And so are those samanas and brahmanas who assert that the world is infinite, with no limit. And so also are those samanas and brahmanas who assert that the world is finite as well as infinite. This world is neither finite nor infinite."

This, bhikkhus, is the fourth possibility. Basing themselves on this authority and on this ground, some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is finite, and some samanas and brahmanas holding the view that the world is infinite, demonstrate their respective points of view—the finiteness or the infiniteness of the world. (8+4=12)

58. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas who hold that the world is finite and those samanas and brahmanas who hold that the world is infinite support their respective views on these four grounds.

Bhikkhus! When any samanas and brahmanas who hold that the world is finite or when any samanas and brahmanas who hold that it is infinite support their respective views, all of them proffer these four, or any one of the four, lines of reasoning and not any other line of reasoning.

59. Bhikkhus! The Tathagata knows the destination, the next existence in which one holding these four views would be reborn, if these views are thus held on to, if these views are thus grasped.

The Tathagata knows these four views. He also knows the dhamma which surpasses them. Knowing that dhamma, he does not view it in the wrong way. Since he does not view it in the wrong way, he realizes by himself the extinction of defilements (i.e., greed, anger, and ignorance of the Four Ariya Truths).

Bhikkhus! Since the Tathagata rightly knows the arising of feeling (vedana) and its cause, the cessation of feeling and its cause, its pleasantness, its faults, and freedom from attachment to it, he becomes liberated without any clinging, (i.e., he realizes Nibbana).

60. Thus, bhikkhus, these are the dhammas which are profound, hard to see, hard to comprehend, tranquil, noble, surpassing logic, subtle and intelligible only to the ariyas. The Tathagata has set them forth after realization of these dhammas by himself through Sabbannuta nana (Perfect Wisdom). Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

 

Four Kinds of Indecisive Evasion 
(Amaravikkhepa Ditthi)


61. Bhikkhus, there are certain samanas and brahmanas who by means of indecisive speech evade questions put to them on any matter; they evade answering them, (behaving elusively like amara fish1 ) and speak in ambiguous terms, because of four reasons.

The First Amaravikkhepa Ditthi

62. In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana does not understand correctly what is merit2 or what is demerit3.

He thinks thus:

"I do not understand correctly what is merit or what is demerit. If I were to say what is merit, without really understanding it as being merit, or what is demerit, without really under standing it as being demerit, I may be stating a falsehood. This false statement of mine would cause me distress. Such distress might be harmful to me." (The thought that I have told a lie will cause me distress. Such distress will be a very serious obstacle in my path to higher rebirths and achievement of maggas and phalas.)

He who thus fears and detests making a false statement declines to say what is merit or what is demerit. If he were asked to answer the question (as to what is merit or what is demerit), he would reply: "I don't take it this way; neither do I take it that way; and I don't take it the other way; neither do I take it not this way, not that way, not the other way; and, also, I don't take it that it is otherwise."

Bhikkhus! This is the first possibility. It is based on this reason that some samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put to them on any matter and speak in ambiguous terms. (12+1=13)

1. amara fish: a kind or slippery fish which cannot be caught because of its skill in diving into and jumping out of water.

2. Merit means Dana (Charity), Sila (Self-Control to refrain from doing and speaking what is evil), Bhavana (samatha and vipassana). Samatha is the means for attaining rupa jhanas and arupa jhanas; rupa jhanas can cause those who have them to be reborn as corporeal brahmas; arupa jhanas can cause those who have them to be reborn as incorporeal brahmas. Vipassana is the means for attaining maggas and phalas that will give one who has them freedom from dukkha.

3. Demerit is a synonym for akusala kammapatha.

Ten Akusala Kammapathas

Akusala Kammapatha means the path to evil or demerit. There are ten such paths:

(a) killing,

(b) stealing,

(c) using improper means to satisfy one's sensual desires, e.g., committing adultery, taking intoxicants,

(d) telling lies,

(e) setting one against another,

(f) using rough and abusive words,

(g) indulging in unbeneficial speech,

(h) belief in false theories,

(i) ill will,

(j) covetousness.



Causes of Akusala Kammapathas

There are three causes. They are lobha, dosa, moha (greed, anger, ignorance).

Causes of Kusala Kammapathas

There are three causes. They are alobha, adosa, amoha (absence of greed, anger and ignorance).

The Second Amaravikkhepa Ditthi

63. What is the second reason that causes respected samanas and brahmanas to be elusive, to evade questions put to them on any matter and to speak in ambiguous terms?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana does not understand correctly what is merit or what is demerit.

He thinks thus

"I do not understand correctly what is merit or what is demerit. If I were to say what is merit, without really understanding it as being merit, or what is demerit, without really under standing it as being demerit, my answer might cause satisfaction and pleasure, or dissatisfaction and displeasure, to arise in me. These feelings of satisfaction, pleasure, dissatisfaction or displeasure would cling to me. This clinging would cause me distress. Such distress might be harmful to me." (If some learned persons approve of my answer, I shall think highly of myself. This thought will arouse in me either satisfaction or pleasure. If some learned persons disapprove of my answer, I shall think poorly of myself. This thought will arouse in me either dissatisfaction or displeasure with myself. These feelings of satisfaction and pleasure or dissatisfaction and displeasure will cling to me. This clinging will cause me distress. Such distress will be a very serious obstacle in my path to higher rebirths and achievement of maggas and phalas.) He who thus fears and detests making a wrong statement declines to say what is merit or what is demerit. If he were asked to answer the question (as to what is merit or what is demerit), he would reply: "I don't take it this way; neither do I take it that way; and I don't take it the other way; neither do I take it not this way, not that way, not the other way; and, also, I don't take it that it is otherwise."

Bhikkhus! This is the second possibility, it is based on this reason that some samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put to them on any matter and speak in ambiguous terms. (12+2=l4)

The Third Amaravikkhepa Ditthi

64. What is the third reason that causes respected samanas and brahmanas to be elusive, to evade questions put to them on any matter and to speak in ambiguous terms?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana does not understand correctly what is merit or what is demerit.

He thinks thus:

"I do not understand correctly what is merit or what is demerit. If I were to say what is merit, without really understanding it as being merit, or what is demerit, without really understanding it as being demerit, those samanas and brahmanas who are learned, subtle, well-versed in other creeds, skilled in saying things straight to the point (like a skilful archer able to split she tail han of an animal) and who are given to smashing all other views by their knowledge, might question (my views), ask reasons for them, and pass strictures on them. If they should thus question me, ask for reasons and pass strictures on my views, I might not be able to give them an adequate reply. In that case it would cause me distress. Such distress might be harmful to me." (Such distress would be a very serious obstacle in my path to higher rebirths and achievement of maggas and phalas.)

He who thus fears and detests such questioning declines to say what is merit or what is demerit. If he were asked to answer the question (as to what is merit, or what is demerit), he would reply: "I don't take it this way; neither do I take it that way; and I don't take it the other way; neither do I take it not this way, not that way, not the other way; and, also, I don't take it that it is otherwise."

Bhikkhus! This is the third possibility. It is based on this reason that some samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put to them on any matter and speak in ambiguous terms. (12+3=15)

The Fourth Amaravikkhepa Ditthi

Note: (1) Thirty-One Bhumis

According to Buddhism, there are thirty-one bhumis. A bhumi means an abode, where beings live. Bhumi is sometimes translated as "plane of existence", or "realm".

(a) Twenty brahma (Higher Celestial) bhumis:

Arupa brahmas (brahntis with mind and no body) live in four arupa brahma bhumis. Rupa brahmas (with mind and body) live in fifteen rupa brahma bhumis. Asannasatta brahmas (rupa brahmas with body and no mind) live in the asannasatta brahma bhumi. Brahmas are superior to devas.

(b) Six deva (Celestial) bhumis:

Devas live in the six deva bhumis.

(c) One manussa (human) bhumi:

Human beings live in this manussa bhumi.

(d) Four apaya (nether) bhumis:

Niraya (beings in realms of continuous suffering), tiracchana (animals), peta (miserable and ever hungry beings), asurakayas (miserable and frightened beings) live in these four bhumis.

(ii) Four types of Birth

According to Buddhishi, there are four types of birth. They are (a) andaja (oviparous), (b) jalabuja (viviparous), (c) sam sedaja (moisture-sprung), (d) opapatika (fully-fledged birth).

(iii) Opapatika

In the case of brahmas, devas, asurakayas, petas and nirayas, as soon as patisandhi mind (first mind of the new life) takes place, they — unlike humans and animals, — attain full maturity. They appear as fully-fledged beings. This kind of birth is called opapatika birth. Unlike jalabujas, opapatikas do not leave behind dead bodies when they die. Simultaneously with their death their bodies disappear.

The birth of beings in these thirty-one bhumis takes place in accordance with their kammas. Kamma is the abbreviated term for deeds, words and thoughts, which one has done, spoken and conceived.

(iv) Bad Kammas

Killing, stealing, satisfying one's sensual desire by improper means— committing adultery and taking intoxicants are improper means, — telling lies, setting one against another, using rough and abusive words indulging in unbeneficial talk, covetousness, anger, having faith in wrong beliefs — theso are bad kammas. They can cause one to have rebirths in the four apaya bhumis.

(v) Good Kammas

Charity and self-control to refrain from doing and saying what is evil. These are good kammas. They can cause one to have rebirths in deva bhumis.

(vi) Better Kammas

Four rupa jhanas (refined mental states of concentration) which one will gain as a result of practising samatha bhavana. They are better kammas. They can cause rebirths in rupa brahma bhumis.

(vii) Best Kammas

Four maggas and phalas which one will gain as a result of practising vipassana bhavana. They will enable one to perceive Nibbana. These four maggas will uproot seven anusayas, which are the causes of endless rebirths. Extinction of rebirths will cause one to gain freedom from dukkha.

65. What is the fourth reason that causes respected samanas and brahmanas to be elusive, to evade questions put to them on any matter and to speak in ambiguous terms?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana is lacking in wisdom and is very be wildered. He evades questions put to him on any matter and speaks in ambiguous terms (in the follow ing manner) as he is lacking in wisdom and is very bewildered.

"If I were asked, 'Is there another world?' and if I took it that there is, I should answer, 'There is another world'. But I would not say this way, nor that way, nor the other way; neither would I say not this way, not that way, not, the other way; nor would I say otherwise.

If I were asked

whether there is not another world .....
whether there is, and also is not, another world.....
whether there neither is, nor is not, another world.....
whether there is opapatika birth of beings.....
whether there is no opapaitika birth of beings.....
whether there is, and also there is not, opapatika birth of being's.....
whether it is not that there is, and also there is not, opapatika birth of beings..... 
whether a good or a bad kamma produces results.....
whether a good or a bad kamma produces no results.....
whether it is that a good or a bad kamma produces results, and also does not produce results.....
whether it is not that a good or a bad kamma produces results, and also does not produce results.....
whether there is life after death1..... whether there is no life after death.....
whether there is life as well as no life after death..... 
whether it is not that there is life as well as no life after death, and if I took it that it is not that there is life as well as no life after death, I should answer : 'It is not that there is life as well as no life after death.' But I would not say this way, nor that way, nor the other way; neither would I say not this way, not that way, not the other way; nor would I say otherwise."

Bhikkhus! This is the fourth possibility. It is based on this reason that some samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put them on any matter and speak in ambiguous terms. (12 + 4=6)

66. Bhikkhus! These are the four reasons that cause those samanas and brahmanas to be elusive, to evade questions put to them on any matter and to speak ambiguously.

Bhikkhus! "When any of the samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put to them on any matter, all of them do so either for these four, or any one of the four, reasons and not for any other reason. The Tathagata knows... (as in paras 59 and 60)... Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.


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1. Literally, whether a sentient beiug exists after death...

Two Doctrines of Non-causality
(Adhiccasamuppanna Vada) 
67. There are, bhikkhus, some samghas and brahmanas who, holding the doctrine of non-causality, propound in two ways that atta as well as loka arises without a Cause.

On what authority and on what basis do those respected samanas and brahmanas propound in two ways that atta as well as loka arises without a cause?

'The First Adhiccasamuppanna Vada

68. There are, bhikkhus, Brahmas who are known as asannasatta, beings devoid of sanna, (lit., Perception; here, the Commentary says, mind and mental concomitants are meant). When these Brahmas pass away from that realm, they are reborn in a sensual existence with sanna, There is a possibility that when a being thus passes away from that realm, he is reborn in this human world. Having been thus reborn, he renounced the worldly life for the homeless life of a recluse. He then achieves utmost mental concentration by dint of ardent, steadfast, persevering exertion, mindfulness and right attentiveness. When he has thus established his mind in highest concentration, he can recollect the arising of sanna(birth-linking consciousness) in the present existence, but cannot recollect beyond that,

He says thus:

"Atta as well as loka arises without a cause. Why can I say so? I can say so because formerly I was not in existence, but now I actually exist although I had not existed before."

Bhikkhus! This is the first possibility. It is based on this that some samanas and brahmanas, holding the doctrine of non-causality, propound that atta as well as loka arises without a cause, (16 + 1=17)

The Second Adhiccasamuppanna Vada

69. Secondly, bhikkhus, on what authority and on what basis do the respected samanas and brahmanas, holding the doctrine of non-causality, propound that atta as well as loka arises without a cause?

In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana and brahmana is given to logic and investigation. He uses various methods of reasoning, conducts investigations and gives his views thus:

"Atta as well as loka arises without a cause,"

This, bhikkhus, is the second possibility. It is based on this that some samanas and brahmanas, holding the doctrine of non-causality, declare that atta as well as loka arises without a cause. (16 + 2=18)

70. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas who hold the doctrine of non-causality demonstrate on these two grounds that atta as well as loka arises without a cause. When any of the samanas and brahmanas who hold the doctrine of non-causality demonstrate that atta as well as loka arises without a cause, all of them do so on these two, or one of the two, grounds and on no other ground. The Tathagata knows... (as in paras 59 & 60)... Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

71. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past and who adhere to views relating to it assert in these eighteen ways their many and varied wrong views about the past.

Bhikkhus! When any of those samanas and brahmanas as who speculate on the past and adhere to views relating to it declare their many and varied wrong views about the past, all of them do so in these eighteen, or one of the eighteen, different ways and in no other way.

72. Bhikkhus! The Tathagata knows the destination, the next existence in which one holding these eighteen views would be reborn, if these views are thus held on to, if these views are thus grasped.

The Tathagata knows these eighteen views. He also knows the dhamma which surpasses them. Knowing that dhamma, he does not view it in the wrong way. Since he does not view it in the wrong way, he realizes by himself the extinction of defilements (i. e., greed, anger, and ignorance of the Four Ariya Truths).

Bhikkhus! Since the Tathagata rightly knows the arising of feeling (vedana) and its cause, the cessation of feeling and its cause, its pleasantness, its faults, and freedom from attachment to it, he becomes liberated without any clinging, (i. e.. he realizes Nibbana).

73. Thus, bhikkhus, these are the dhammas which are profound, hard to see, hard to comprehend, tranquil, noble, surpassing logic, subtle and intelligible only to the ariyas. The Tathagata has set them forth after realization of these dhammas by himself through Sabbannuta Nana (Perfect Wisdom). Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

End of the Second Portion for Recitation

Forty-four Views Relating to the Future
(Aparantanuditthi)
74. There are, bhikkhus, certain samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the future and adhere to beliefs relating to it. They assert in forty-four ways their many and varied wrong views relating to the future. On what authority and on what basis do these respected samanas and brahmanas speculate on the future, adhere to beliefs relating to it, and declare them in forty-four ways?

Sixteen Kinds of Belief in the Existence of Sanna after Death
(Uddhamaghatanika Sanna Vada)

75. There are, bhikkhus, certain samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of sanna.( sanna: lit., Perception; in most cases it stands for mind and mental concomitants.) after death. They declare in sixteen ways their belief in the existence of atta with sannaafter death. On what authority and on what basis do these respected samanas and brahmanas, believing in the existence of atta with sanna after death, demonstrate in sixteen ways the existence of atta with sanna after death?

76. They declare that: (1) atta is corporeal; it does not decay after death; and it has sanna; ..

(This view is held by a person who has attained a rupa jhana and who takes as atta the purified mental image, patibhaga nimitta, which is the object of his jhana concentration. This purified mental image is taken by him as having the nature of corporeality because of its similarity to the original kasina object of meditation, or because it has the nature of changeability, as it is small before being enlarged mentally and as it becomes large when expanded mentally. The jhana mind which is concentrated on this purified mental image is taken by this person to be sanna, and thus he believes that the atta identified with the purified mental image has sanna. However, a person who believes in atta and who has not attained any jhana just takes it through some sort of reasoning that atta is corporeal and has sanna. Both these two kinds of persons firmly believe that after death in the present existence atta is not subject to decay or disintegration, and therefore is eternal.)

or that: (2) atta is incorporeal; it does not decay after death; and it has sanna ..

(This view is held by one who has attained an arupa jhana and whose object of jhana concentration is some abstract thing such as akasa or space; this abstract object of concentration is taken by him as atta. Such objects of jhana concentration, being abstract, do not have the nature of corporeality. The arupa jhana mind concentrating on such an object is taken as sanna. Thus this atta has sonna and is eternal.)

or that: (3) atta is both corporeal and incorporeal; ..

(This view is held by a person who first attains arupa jhana and believes in the corporeality of atta, through concentrating on the purified mental image of a kasina object; then, after progressing further in concentration, when he attains an arupa jhana, he comes to believe also that the atta identified with the abstract object of arupa jhana concentration is incorporeal.)

or that: (4) atta is neither corporeal nor incorporeal; ..

(This view is held by a person who has not attained any jhana, and who has heard such a statement from others or who has thought it out on his own.)

or that: (5) atta is finite ; ..

(This view is held by a person who believes in the finiteness of the world, loka as represented by the purified mental imagepatibhaga nimitta. of the kasina object of meditation, as in Para 54. This purified mental image is at first of the same size as the original kasina object. When much stronger concentration is gained, the purified mental image can be mentally enlarged and expanded, either before or after jhana, in one of three ways: with finite limits; or endlessly, that is, without finite limits; or with finite limits vertically, and endlessly without finite limits horizontally. Here the person concerned has mentally enlarged the purified mental image, patibhaga nimitta, within finite limits, and he takes this enlarged and defined image itself as atta. Thus he says 'atta' is finite; it does not decay after death; and it has sanna.' In Para 54, the person concerned was speculating about the past; here the person concerned is speculating about the future. The same applies to the next three persons.)

or that: (6) attais infinite; ..

(This view is held by a person who has mentally expanded the purified mental image endlessly.)

or that: (7) atta is both finite and infinite; ..

(this view is held by a person who has mentally expanded the purified mental image with definite limits vertically and endlessly without definite limits horizontally.)

or that: (8) atta is neither finite nor infinite; ..

(this view is held by a person who has not attained any jhana, but who may have come to this conclusion either through his own reasoning or because he has heard the contradictory views above.)

or that : (9) atta has only one kind of sanna; ..

(This view is held by a person who is immersed in jhana; while immersed in jhana, he takes the mind as atta. and that atta being concentrated on only one object of jhana concentration, he believes that atta, has only one kind of sanna.)

or that: (10) atta has various kinds of sanna; ..

(This view is held by a person who, not being immersed in any jhana, is conscious of several kinds of objects of the senses; thus he believes atta has various kinds of sanna.)

or that: (11) atta has limited sanna; ..

(This view is held by a person who has attained jhana, but who has not mentally enlarged the purified mental image of the kasina object, which therefore appears to him to be small or limited. jhana sanna concentrates on this small or limited mental image as its object, and he takes the jhana mind or sanna as atta and he concludes that atta has a small or limited sanna. Other persons believe that atta itself is as small as a thumb, or a paddy seed, or an atom, and therefore atta has a small or limited sanna.)

or that: (12) atta has unlimited sanna; ..

(This view is held by a person whose jhana concentration has as its object the purified mental image which has been mentally enlarged or expanded by him, and who therefore concludes that atta has a very large or unlimited sanna. Other persons believe that atta exists in every animate or inanimate thing and thus it has immeasurably numerous sanna.)

or that: (13) atta indeed has bliss; ..

(This view is held by a person who has attained the divine power of sight, dibba cakkhu abhinna, and who by this power sees those in the three lowest rupa bhumis abiding in jhana and experiencing blissful sensation. He therefore concludes that atta indeed has and will have bliss.)

or that: (14) atta indeed has suffering; ..

(This view is held by a person who through divine power of sight sees those in the abodes of intense continuous suffering. He therefore concludes that atta indeed has and will have suffering.)

or that: (15) atta has both happiness and suffering;

(This view is held by a person who sees beings in the human world experiencing both happiness and suffering.)

or that: (16) atta has neither happiness nor suffering; it does not decay after death; and it has sanna. (Here, neither happiness nor suffering means equanimity.

This view is held by a person who through the divine power of sight sees the Vehapphala Brahmas who are given to abiding in the jhana of equanimity.) [18 +(16)=34]

77. Bhikkhus, these are the sixteen ways in which those samanas and Brahmanas who believe in the existence of sannaafter death declare their believe in the existence of atta with sanna after death. When any of those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of sanna after death demonstrate the existence of atta with sanna after death, all of them do so in these sixteen, or in one or other of these sixteen ways and in no other way. The Tathagata know.. (as in Paras 72, 73)... If anyone wishes to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata, he should do so in terms of these dhammas.

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Eight Kinds of Belief in the Non-existence of Sanna after Death
(Uddhamaghatanika Asanni Vada) 


78. There are, bhikkhus, some samanas and brahmanas who believe in the non-existence of sannaafter death. They declare in eight ways their belief in the existence of atta devoid of sannaafter death.

On what authority and on what basis do those respected samanas and brahmanas, believing in the existence of attadevoid of sanna after death, demonstrate in eight ways their belief in the existence of atta devoid of sanna after death?

79. They declare that: (1) attais corporeal; it does not decay after death; and it has no sanna;

(This view is held by a person who, like the person in item (1) of Para 76, takes the patibhaga nimitta as atta, and believes that atta is corporeal and eternal. But this person sees those who have reached after death the asannasatta Brahma realm, with only body and no mind, and thus he believes that atta has no sanna after death.)

or that: (2) atta is incorporeal; it does nor decay after death; and it has no sanna;

(This view is held by a person who takes as atta the sannakkhandha, the aggregate of Perception, from amongst the five Aggregates or Khandhas. As there is no other kind of sanna apart from this sannadkkhandha, this person takes it that there is no sannaafter death.)

or that: (3) atta is both corporeal and incorporeal;

(This view is held by a person who takes as atta all the aggregates of physical and mental phenomena, including sanna, and as this atta has no additional sanna apart from sannakkhandha, either before or after death, he takes it that there is no sanna after death, since he is speculating about future existence.)

or that: (4) atta is neither corporeal nor incorporeal;...

(This view is held by a person who has either heard it from other persons, or thought it out on his own.)

or that: (5) atta is finite;....

(This view is held by who takes as atta the purified mental image of which he has not mentally enlarged or expanded. As this purified mental image of the kasina object does not have sanna, the person takes it that there is no sanna after death.)

or that: (6) atta is infinite;..........

or that: (7) atta is both finite and infinite;

or that: (8) atta is neither finite nor infinite; it does not decay after death; and it has no sanna. [18+(16+8=24)=42]

(These three views, (6), (7), (8) may be interpreted on the lines of views, (6), (7), (8), of Para 76, except that here atta is taken as having no sanna.)

80. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of atta devoid of sanna after death demonstrate in these eight ways their belief in the existence of atta devoid of sanna after death.

Bhikkhus! When any of the samanas and brahmanas propound their belief in the existence of atta devoid of sanna after death, all of them do so in these eight, or one of the eight, ways and in no other way. The Tathagata knows... (as in Paras 72, 73)... Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

Eight Kinds of Belief in the Existence of neither Sanna nor Non-Sanna After Death
(Uddhamaghatanika Nevasanni Nasanni Vada)
81. There are, bhikkhus, some samallas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of neither sannanor non sannaafter death. [Sanna: Lit., Perception. Here it stands for mind and mental concomitants. (See Para 68.) Thus sanna may be rendered 'Consciousness'.] They declare in eight ways their belief in the existence of attain a state of neither sannanor non-sanna after death.

On what authority and on what basis do those respected samanas and brahmanas, believing in the existence of neither sannanor non-sannaafter death, demonstrate in eight ways their belief in the existence of attain a state of neither sanna nor non-sanna after death?

82. They declare that: (1) atta is corporeal; it does not decay after death; and it has neither sanna nor non sanna (This view is held by a person who maintains that as sannais extremely weak at the moment of death and at the moment of conception in the next existence, sanna cannot be said to exist definitely, nor can it be said to not exist since it still exists in a very delicate and refined form. Thus attahas neither sanna nor asanna, i.e., non-sanna.)

or that: (2) attais incorporeal; ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

or that: (3) attais both corporeal and incorporeal; ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

or that: (4) attais neither corporeal nor incorporeal;.... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

or that: (5) is finite; ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

or that: (6) atta is infinite; ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

or that; (7) attais both finite and infinite; ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

or that: (8) attais neither finite nor infinite; it does not decay after death; it has neither sanna nor non-sanna. [18+(24+8=320=50]

83. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of neither sanna nor non-sanna after death demonstrate in these eight ways their belief in the existence of attain a state of neither sanna nor non-sannaafter death.

Bhikkhus! When any of the samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of neither sanna nor non-sanna after death propound their belief in the existence of atta in a state of neither sannanor non-sannaafter death, all of them do so in these eight, or one of the eight, ways and in no other way. The Tathagata knows... (as in Paras 72, 73) ... Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

Seven Kinds of Belief in Annihilation
(Uccheda Vada) 
84. There are, bhikkhus, some samanas and brahmanas who believe in annihilation. They declare in seven ways their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living.1

On what authority and on what basis do those respected samanas and brahmanas declare in seven ways their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living?

[ 1. Satosattassa: The Commentary qualifies "sato" with " vijjamanassa " meaning "visibly or apparently existing".]

85. In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmanas asserts and holds the (following) view

"Friend! This atta is corporeal; made up of four great primary elements born of the union of father and mother; annihilated and destroyed on the dissolution of the physical body and it does not exist after death. In this manner, this attabecomes entirely extirpated."

Thus do some declare the belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living. (1) [18+(32+1=33)=51]

86. To him someone else says:

"Friend! The attathat you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) attais not by this much entirely annihilated. There is another atta of the sensuous world (kamavacara) of the devas, having corporeality, nourished by solid nutriments. You do not know that atta; neither can you see it. But I know it; and I see it. Friend, with the dissolution of the physical body, that atta becomes annihilated and destroyed. It does not exist after death. In this manner, this attabecomes entirely extirpated."

Thus do some declare their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living. (2) [18+(32+2=34)=52]

87. To him, again, someone else says:

"Friend! The attathat you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta is not by this much entirely annihilated. There is another atta of the world of Brahmas, having corporeality, caused by the jhana mind and endowed completely with (all the minor and major) physical organs, and not deficient in any of the faculties of the senses. You do not know that atta; neither can you see it. But I know it; and I see it. Friend, with the dissolution of the physical body, that attabecomes annihilated and destroyed. It does not exist after death, In this manner, this attabecomes entirely extirpated."

Thus do some declare their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living. (3) [18+(32+3=35)=53]

88. To him, again, someone else says:

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta is not by this much entirely annihilated. There is another atta of one who, by concentrating (through kasina meditation) on the concept "Space is Infinite", has reached the (non-corporeal Realm of infinity of Space (akasanancayatana plane of the Brahmas where all forms of sannathat turn on corporeality (rupa sanna) have been completely transcended, all forms of sannaarising out of contact between the senses and their objects (patigha sanna) have vanished, and other forms of sanna, many and varied, (nanatta sanna) are not paid attention to. You do not know that atta; neither can you see it. But I know it; and I see it. Friend, with the dissolution of that one's mental aggregates, that atta becomes annihilated and destroyed. If does not exist after death. In this manner, this atta becomes entirely extirpated."

Thus do some declare their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living. (4) [18 +(32+4=36)=54]

89. To him, again, someone else says:

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta is not by this much entirely annihilated. There is another atta of one who has reached the (non-corporeal) Realm of Infinity of Consciousness (vinnanancayatana plane of the Brahmas), by concentrating on the concept "Consciousness is infinite," having totally gone beyond the jhana of Infinity of Space. You no know that atta; neither can you see it. But I know it; and I see it. Friend, with the dissolution of that one's mental aggregates, that atta becomes annihilated and destroyed. it does not exist after death. In this manner this atta becomes entirely extirpated."

Thus do some declare their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living. (5) (18+(32+5=37)=55]

90. To him, again, someone else says:

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta is not by this much entirely annihilated. There is another atta of one who has reached the (non-corporeal) Realm of Nothingness (akincannayatana plane of the Brahmas), by concentrating on the concept "Nothing is there", having totally gone beyond the jhana of Infinity of Consciousness. You do not know that atta; neither can you see it. But I know it; and I see it. Friend, with the dissolution of that one's mental aggregates, that atta becomes annihilated and destroyed. It does not exist after death. In this manner, this atta becomes entirely extirpated."

Thus do some declare their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living. (6) [18+(32+6=.38)=56]

91. To him, again, someone else says:

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist, I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta is not by this much entirely annihilated. There is another atta of one who has reached the (non-corporeal) Realm of neither sannanor non-sanna (Nevasannanasannayatana plane of the Brahmas), by concentrating on the mental object "This (Third Arupa Jhana Consciousness) is tranquil; this is sublime", having totally gone beyond the jhana of Nothingness. You do not know that atta; neither call you see it. But I know it ; and I see it. Friend, with the dissolution of that one's mental aggregates, that atta becomes annihilated and destroyed. It does not exist after death. In this manner, this atta becomes entirely extirpated."

Thus do some declare their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living. (7) [18+(32+7=39)=57]

92. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas declare in these seven ways their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living.

Bhikkhus! When any of the samanas and brahmanas who believe in annihilation, propound their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living, all of them do so in these seven, or one of the seven, ways and in no other way. The Tathagata knows.. .(as in Paras 72,73).. .Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.


Five Kinds of Belief in (Mundane) Nibbana as Realizable in this Very Life (Ditthadhamma Nibbana Vada)

93. There are, bhikkhus, some samanas and Brahmanas who hold the view that (mundane) Nibbana* is realizable in this very life by beings presently living. They declare in five ways the nature of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living.(* The Nibbana of the holders of these views is entirely different from the Nibbana of the Buddha's Teaching. )

On what authority and on what basis do those respected samanas and brahmanas, holding the view that (mundane) Nibbana is realizable in this very life by beings presently living, declare in five ways the nature of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living?

94. In this world, bhikkhus, a certain samana or brahmana puts forward this view and adheres to it, saying:

"Friend! This atta fully and thoroughly enjoys the five kinds of sensual pleasures. Thus, friend, this atta has reached the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana."

In this way some declare the nature of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living. (1) [l8+(39+ l=40)=58]

95. To him someone else says:

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta by this means has not yet reached the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana. Why? It is because sensual pleasures are impermanent, painful and subject to change. Out of the nature of their changeableness and instability arise grief, lamentation, pain, distress and despair. Friend! Being detached from sensual pleasures and demeritorious factors, this atta achieves and remains in the first jhana which is accompanied by vitakka (initial application of the mind). vicara (sustained application of the mind), piti (delightful sat isfaction) and sukha (bliss) born of detachment from hindrances (nivarana). It is only in this manner, friend, that this atta reaches the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana."

Thus do some declare the nature of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living. (2) [18+(39+2=41)=59]

96. To him someone else says:

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta by this means has not yet reached the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana. Why? It is because the first jhana is considered coarse since vitakka and vicara are still extant. Indeed, friend, this atta, having calmed vitakka and vicara, achieves and remains in the second jhana, with internal tranquillity, with enhancement of one-pointed ness of Concentration, devoid, of vitakka and vicara, with piti and sukha born of first jhana) concentration. It is only in this manner, friend, that this atta reaches the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana."

Thus do some declare the nature of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living. (3) [18+(39+3=42)=60]

97. To him someone else says?

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta by this means has not yet reached the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana. Why? It is because the second jhana is considered coarse since there still is elation of mind which is piti. Indeed, friend, this atta, having been detached from piti, dwells with mindfulness and clear comprehension in equanimity, and experiences mental and physical well-being. It achieves and remains in the third jhana, that which causes a person who attains it to be praised by the Ariyas as one who has equanimity and mindfulness, one who abides in sukha. It is only in this manner, that this atta reaches the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana."

Thus do some declare the nature of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living. (4) [18+(39+4=43)=61]

"Friend! The atta that you speak of does exist. I do not say it does not exist. (But) atta by this means has not yet reached the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana. Why? It is because the third jhana is considered coarse since in that jhana there still is sukha constantly in mind. Indeed, friend, this atta, by dispelling both pain and pleasure, and by the previous disappearance of sadness and gladness, achieves and remains in the fourth jhana, without pain and pleasure, a state of equanimity and absolute purity of mindful ness. It is only in this manner, friend, that it reaches the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana."

Thus do some declare the nature of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living. (5) [18+(39+5=44)=62]

99. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas declare in these five ways their belief in the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living. Bhikkhus! When any of the samanas and brahmanas declare the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living, all of them do so in these five, or one of five, ways and in no other way. The Tathagata knows.. .(as in Paras 72,73).. .Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

100. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the future and adhere to beliefs relating to it, assert their many and varied wrong views about the future in these forty-four different ways.

Bhikkhus! When any of the samanas and brahmanas propound the many and varied wrong views about the future, all of them do so in these forty-four, or one of the forty-four, different ways and in no other way. The Tathagata knows (as in Paras 72,73)... Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

101. Bhikkhus! Those samanas and bramanas who speculate on the past, or the future, or both the past and the future and adhere to beliefs relating to them assert their many and varied wrong views in these sixty-two different ways.

102. Bhikkhus! When any of the samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past, or the future, or both the past and the future propound their many and varied wrong views, all of them do so in these sixty-two, or one of the sixty-two, ways and in no other way.

103. Bhikkhus! The Tatagata knows the destination, the next existence in which one holding these sixty-two views would be reborn, if these views are thus held on to, if these views are thus grasped.

The Tathagata knows these sixty-two views. He also knows the dhamma which surpasses them. Knowing that dhamma, he does not view it in the wrong way. Since he does not view it in the wrong way, he realizes by himself the extinction of defilements (i.e., greed, anger, and ignorance of the Four Ariya Truths).

Bhikkhus! Since the Tathagata rightly knows the arising of feeling (vedana) and its cause, the cessation of feeling and its cause, its pleasantness, its faults, and freedom from attachment to it, he becomes liberated without any clinging, (i.e., he realizes Nibbana).

104. Thus, bhikkhus, these are the dhammas which are profound, hard to see, hard to comprehend, tranquil, noble, surpassing logic, subtle and intelligible only to the ariyas. The Tathagata has set them forth after realization of these dhammas by himself through Sabbannuta Nana (Perfect Wisdom). Anyone wishing to praise correctly the true virtues of the Tathagata should do so in terms of these dhammas.

Agitation Conditioned by Wrong Views and Craving 
(Paritassita Vipphandita Vara)

105. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of eternity declare on four grounds that atta as well as loka is eternal, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling) being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing. (Longing: Paritassita : by this is meant 'wrong view' and 'craving'.

106. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view that there is eternity as well as non-eternity declare on four grounds that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, , being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

107. 'Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who view the world as finite and those who view the world as infinite declare on four grounds that the world is finite or that it is infinite, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

108. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put to them and remain ambiguous in four ways, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

109. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of non- causality declare on two grounds that atta as well as loka arises without a cause, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

110. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past and adhere to beliefs relating to it declare in eighteen ways their many and varied wrong views relating to the past, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

111. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of sanna after death declare in sixteen ways that atta exists with sanna after death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view), That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

112. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the non existence of sannaafter death declare in eight ways that atta exists devoid of sanna after death, (based on their personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

113. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view that there is neither sanna nor non-sanna (asanna) after death declare in eight ways that atta exists in a state of neither sanna nor non-sanna after death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

114. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the belief in annihilation declare in seven ways their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

115. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in (mundane) immediate Nibbana declare in five ways their view of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

116. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the future and adhere to beliefs relating to it assert in forty-four ways their many and varied wrong views about the future, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

117. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past, or the future, or both the past and the future and adhere to beliefs relating to them assert in sixty-two ways their many and varied wrong views relating to the past and the future, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, being felt by those respected samanas and brahmanas who do not know and who do not see (the truth) and who are seized by craving, is agitated through longing.

Contact as Cause
(Phassa Paccaya)
118. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the eternity view declare on four grounds that atta as well as loka is eternal, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling) arises because of contact.

119. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view that there is eternity as well as non-eternity declare on. four grounds that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

120. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who view the world as finite and those who view the world as infinite declare on four grounds that the world is finite or that it is infinite, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

121. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put to them and remain ambiguous in four ways, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

122. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of non-causality declare on two grounds that atta as well as loka arises without a cause, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

123. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past and adhere to beliefs relating to it declare in eighteen ways their many and varied wrong views relating to the past, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

124. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of sannaafter death declare in sixteen ways that atta exists with sannaafter death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

125. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the non-existence of sanna after death declare in eight ways that atta exists devoid of sanna after death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

126. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view that there is neither sanna nor non-sanna after death declare in eight ways that atta exists in a state of neither sannanor non-sanna after death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

127. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who held the belief in annihilation declare in seven ways their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

128. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in (mundane) immediate Nibbana declare in five ways their view of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

129. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the future and adhere to beliefs relating to it assert in forty-four ways their many and varied wrong views about the future, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). That feeling, too, arises because of contact.

130. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past, or the future, or both the past and the future and adhere to beliefs relating to them assert in sixty-two ways their many and varied wrong views relating to the past and the future, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view. That (feeling), too, arises because of contact.

No Possibility of Feeling without Contact 
(Netam Thanam Vijjati Vara))

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131. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of, eternity declare on four grounds that atta as well as loka is eternal, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction, in their view), indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

132. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view that there is eternity as well as non-eternity declare on four grounds that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

133. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who view the world as finite and those who view the world as infinite, declare on four grounds that the world is finite or that it is infinite, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

134. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who are elusive evade questions put to them and remain ambiguous in four ways, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

135. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of non-causality declare on two grounds that atta as well as loka arises without a cause, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

136. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past and adhere to beliefs relating to it declare in eighteen ways their many and varied wrong views relating to the past, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

137. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of sanna after death declare in sixteen ways that atta exists with sanna after death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

138. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the non-existence of sannaafter death declare in eight ways that atta exists devoid of sannaafter death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

139. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view that there is neither sannanor non-sanna after death declare in eight ways that atta exists in a state of neither sanna nor non-sanna after death, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

140. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the belief in annihilation declare in seven ways their belief in the annihilation, destruction and (future) non-existence of beings presently living, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

141. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who believe in (mundane) immediate Nibbana declare in five ways their view of the supreme (mundane) immediate Nibbana of beings presently living, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

142. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the future and adhere to beliefs relating to it assert in forty-four ways their many and varied wrong views about the future, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

143. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past, or the future, or both the past and the future assert in sixty-two ways their many and varied wrong views about the past and the future, (based on their own personal feeling of satisfaction in their view). Indeed, they can in no way experience that (feeling) without contact.

Of the Round of Suffering Caused by Wrong Views (Ditthigatikadhitthana Vatta Katha)

144. Bhikkhus, of those (holding the wrong views), those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of eternity declare on four grounds that atta as well as loka is eternal. Also those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view that atta as well as loka is in some cases eternal and in others not eternal.. .(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of the world as finite or those who hold it as infinite.. .(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who elusively evade questions...(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who hold the view of non-causality...(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past and adhere to beliefs relating to it . . .(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the existence of sanna after death.. .(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who believe in the non-existence of sanna after death.. .(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who believe that there is neither sanna nor non-sanna after death ... (p)...Also those samanas and brahmanas who believe in annihilation.. .(.p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who believe in (mundane) immediate Nibbana ...(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the future...(p)... Also those samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past, or the future, or both, and adhere to beliefs relating to them, assert in sixty-two ways their many and varied wrong views relating to the past and the future. They experience feeling as a result of repeated contact through the six sense bases. In them feeling gives rise to craving; craving gives rise to clinging; clinging gives rise to current existence (upapatti bhava) and the kammic causal process (kamma bhava); the kammic causal process gives rise to rebirth; and rebirth gives rise to ageing, death, grief, lamentation, pain, distress and despair.

Discourse on the Cessation of the Round of Rebirths (Vivatta Kathadi)

145. Bhikkhus! When a bhikkhu knows correctly the origin of the six sense bases of contact, their cessation, their pleasantness, their danger and the way of escape from them; he realizes the dhammas (Morality, sila; Concentration, samadhi; Wisdom, panna; Liberation, vimutti) that surpass all these (wrong) views.

146. Bhikkhus! When any of the samanas and brahmanas who speculate on the past, or the future, or both the past and the future, and adhere to beliefs relating to them, assert the many and varied (wrong) views about the past, or the future, or both, all of them are caught in the net of this discourse with all their sixty-two categories of wrong views, and if they try to rise (or sink), they rise (or sink) within the net, for all their views fall within the net of this discourse.

Take this simile, bhikkhus! When a skilful fisherman or his apprentice spreads out a finely meshed net on the waters of a small lake, it may occur to him thus:

'As all big creatures in the lake have been caught in the finely meshed net, if they rise to the surface (or sink), they do so within the net. As they are all contained in the net, if they rise (or sink), they do so all within the finely meshed net.'

In the same manner, bhikkhus, when all samanas and brahmanas, speculating on the past, or the future, or both, and adhering to beliefs relating to them, assert their many and varied (wrong) views they do so in sixty-two ways, which all fall within the net of this discourse. And as this discourse encompasses all those (wrong) views; if any one of the views comes up, it does so within the compass of this discourse.

147. The Tathagata's physical body stands cut off from the bonds of craving or existence. Men and devas will behold him for so long as his physical body remains. They will not behold him when his physical body dissolves at the end of his life.

Just as, bhikkhus, when the stalk is cut off, all mangoes hanging on it go with it; so, bhikkhus, the physical body of the Tathagata stands cut off from craving for existence.

Men and devas will behold him for so long as his physical body remains. They will not behold him when his physical body dissolves at the end of his life.

Conclusion

148. When the Bhagava had delivered this discourse, the Venerable Ananda addressed him thus: "Marvellous indeed, Venerable Sir! Extraordinary indeed, Venerable Sir! What is the name of this exposition of the dhamma?"

"Ananda!" said the Bhagava, "Bear in mind that this exposition of the dhamma is called Atthajala, the Net of Essence, as well as Dhammajala, the Net of the Dhamma, as well as Brahmajala, the Net of Perfect Wisdom, as well as Ditthijala, the Net of Views, as well as Anuttarasangama Vijaya, the Incomparable Victory in Battle." Thus said the Bhagava.

149. Delighted, the bhikkhus rejoiced at the words of the Bhagava. On the delivery of this discourse ten thousand world systems quaked.

End of the Brahmaja1a Sutta, the first Sutta.

 

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Ten Suttas from Digha Nikaya (Long Discourses of the Buddha) by Burma Pitaka Association Editorial Committee is licensed under a 
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