The Satipatthana Sutta

translated by Soma Thera

 


Thus have I heard.

 

At one time the Blessed One was living in the Kurus, at Kammasadamma, a market-town of the Kuru people.

 

Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus as follows: "This is the only way, O bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely, the Four Arousings of Mindfulness."

 

THE FOUR AROUSINGS OF MINDFULNESS

 

"What are the four?

 

"Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending (it) and mindful (of it), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending (them) and mindful (of them), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness, ardent, clearly comprehending (it) and mindful (of it), having overcome in this world covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending (them) and mindful (of them), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief."

 

1. THE CONTEMPLATION OF THE BODY

 

Mindfulness of Breathing

"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating the body in the body?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty place, sits down, bends in his legs crosswise on his lap, keeps his body erect, and arouses mindfulness in the object of meditation, namely, the breath which is in front of him.

 

"Mindful, he breathes in, and mindful, he breathes out. He, thinking, 'I breathe in long,' he understands when he is breathing in long; or thinking, 'I breathe out long,' he understands when he is breathing out long; or thinking, 'I breathe in short,' he understands when he is breathing in short; or thinking, 'I breathe out short,' he understands when he is breathing out short.

 

"'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe in,' thinking thus, he trains himself. 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe out,' thinking thus, he trains himself. 'Calming the activity of the body, I shall breathe in,' thinking thus, he trains himself. 'Calming the activity of the body, I shall breathe out,' thinking thus, he trains himself.

 

"Just as a clever turner or a turner's apprentice, turning long, understands: 'I turn long;' or turning short, understands: 'I turn short'; just so, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, when he breathes in long, understands: 'I breathe in long'; or, when he breathes out long, understands: 'I breathe out long'; or, when he breathes in short, he understands: 'I breathe in short'; or when he breathes out short, he understands: 'I breathe out short.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe in.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe out.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Calming the activity of the body I shall breathe in.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Calming the activity of the body I shall breathe out.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or indeed his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world. Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

The Modes of Deportment

"And further, O bhikkhus, when he is going, a bhikkhu understands: 'I am going'; when he is standing, he understands: 'I am standing'; when he is sitting, he understands: 'I am sitting'; when he is lying down, he understands: 'I am lying down'; or just as his body is disposed so he understands it.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things, in the body. Or indeed his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world." Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

The Four Kinds of Clear Comprehension

"And further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, in going forwards (and) in going backwards, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in looking straight on (and) in looking away from the front, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in bending and in stretching, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in wearing the shoulder-cloak, the (other two) robes (and) the bowl, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in regard to what is eaten, drunk, chewed and savored, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in defecating and in urinating, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in walking, in standing (in a place), in sitting (in some position), in sleeping, in waking, in speaking and in keeping silence, is a person practicing clear comprehension.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world. Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

The Reflection on the Repulsiveness of the Body

"And further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body hemmed by the skin and full of manifold impurity from the soles up, and from the top of the hair down, thinking thus: 'There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, fibrous threads (veins, nerves, sinews, tendons), bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, contents of stomach, intestines, mesentery, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tars, fat dissolved, saliva, mucus, synovic fluid, urine.'

 

"Just as if, O bhikkhus, there were a bag having two openings, full of grain differing in kind, namely, hill-paddy, paddy, green-gram, cow-pea, sesamum, rice; and a man with seeing eyes, having loosened it, should reflect thinking thus: 'This is hill paddy; this is paddy, this is green-gram; this is cow-pea; this is sesamum; this is rice.' In the same way, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body hemmed in by the skin and full of manifold impurity from the soles up, and from the top of the hair down, thinking thus: 'There are in this body: hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, fibrous threads (veins, nerves, sinews, tendons), bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, contents of the stomach, intestines, mesentery, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tears, fat dissolved, saliva, mucus, synovic fluid, urine.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body, internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

The Reflection on the Modes of Materiality (Elements, Dhatu)

"And further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body according as it is placed or disposed, by way of the modes of materiality, thinking thus: 'There are in this body the mode of solidity, the mode of cohesion, the mode of caloricity, and the mode of oscillation.'

 

"O bhikkhus, in whatever manner, a clever cow-butcher or a cow-butcher's apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it by way of portions, should be sitting at the junction of a four-cross-road; in the same manner, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body, according as it is placed or disposed, by way of the modes of materiality, thinking thus: 'There are in this body the mode of solidity, the mode of cohesion, the mode of caloricity, and the mode of oscillation.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 1

"And further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body dead, one, two, or three days: swollen, blue and festering, thrown into the charnel ground, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine too is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 2

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees, whilst it is being eaten by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals or by different kinds of worms, a body that had been thrown into the charnel ground, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or indeed his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent, and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 3

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body, thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton together with (some) flesh and blood held in by the tendons, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.

 

"He lives contemplating origination-things in the body or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or indeed, his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent, and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 4

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a blood-besmeared skeleton without flesh but held in by the tendons, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 5

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton held in by the tendons but without flesh and not besmeared with blood, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mind, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 6

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones gone loose, scattered in all directions — a bone of the hand, a bone of the foot, a shin bone, a thigh bone, the pelvis, spine and skull, each in a different place — he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 7

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones, white in color like a conch, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body;'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 8

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones more than a year old, heaped together, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

Cemetery Contemplation 9

"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones gone rotten and become dust, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

 

2. THE CONTEMPLATION OF FEELING

 

"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating feeling in feelings?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu when experiencing a pleasant feeling, understands: 'I experience a pleasant feeling'; when experiencing a painful feeling, he understands: 'I experience a painful feeling'; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling, he understands: 'I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling'; when experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, he understands: 'I experience a pleasant worldly feeling'; when experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling, he understands: 'I experience a pleasant spiritual feeling'; when experiencing a painful worldly feeling, he understands: 'I experience a painful worldly feeling'; when experiencing a painful spiritual feeling, he understands: 'I experience a painful spiritual feeling'; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling, he understands: 'I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling'; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling, he understands: 'I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling.'

 

"Thus he lives contemplating feelings in feelings internally, or he lives contemplating feeling in feelings externally, or he lives contemplating feeling in feelings internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in feelings, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in feelings, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in feelings. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'Feeling exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating feeling in feelings."

 

3. THE CONTEMPLATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS

 

"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating consciousness in consciousness?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands the consciousness with lust, as with lust; the consciousness without lust, as without lust; the consciousness with hate, as with hate; the consciousness without hate, as without hate; the consciousness with ignorance, as with ignorance; the consciousness without ignorance, as without ignorance; the shrunken state of consciousness, as the shrunken state; the distracted state of consciousness, as the distracted state; the state of consciousness become great, as the state become great; the state of consciousness not become great, as the state not become great; the state of consciousness with some other mental state superior to it, as the state with something mentally higher; the state of consciousness with no other mental state superior to it, as the state with nothing mentally higher; the quieted state of consciousness, as the quieted state; the state of consciousness not quieted, as the state not quieted; the freed state of consciousness as freed; and the unfreed state of consciousness, as unfreed.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness externally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in consciousness, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in consciousness, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in consciousness. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'Consciousness exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness."

 

4. THE CONTEMPLATION ON MENTAL OBJECTS

 

1. The Five Hindrances

"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental objects in mental objects?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances.

 

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, when sensuality is present, a bhikkhu knows with understanding: 'I have sensuality,' or when sensuality is not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no sensuality.' He understands how the arising of the non-arisen sensuality comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen sensuality comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sensuality comes to be. When anger is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have anger,' or when anger is not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no anger.' He understands how the arising of the non-arisen anger comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen anger comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned anger comes to be. When sloth and torpor are present, he knows with understanding: 'I have sloth and torpor,' or when sloth and torpor are not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no sloth and torpor.' He understands how the arising of non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sloth and torpor comes to be. When agitation and worry are present, he knows with understanding: 'I have agitation and worry,' or when agitation and worry are not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no agitation and worry.' He understands how the arising of non-arisen agitation and worry comes to be; and he understands how the abandoning of the arisen agitation and worry comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned agitation and worry comes to be. When doubt is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have doubt,' or when doubt is not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no doubt.' He understands how the arising of non-arisen doubt comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen doubt comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, internally, or he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, externally, or he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in mental objects. Or his mind is established with the thought: 'Mental objects exist,' to the extent necessary for just knowledge and remembrance and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the five hindrances."

 

2. The Five Aggregates of Clinging

"And, further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging.

 

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu thinks: 'Thus is material form; thus is the arising of material form; and thus is the disappearance of material form. Thus is feeling; thus is the arising of feeling; and thus is the disappearance of feeling. Thus is perception; thus is the arising of perception; and thus is the disappearance of perception. Thus are the formations; thus is the arising of the formations; and thus is the disappearance of the formations. Thus is consciousness; thus is the arising of consciousness; and thus is the disappearance of consciousness.'

 

Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging."

 

3. The Six Internal and the Six External Sense-bases

"And, further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases.

 

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands the eye and material forms and the fetter that arises dependent on both (eye and forms); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the ear and sounds and the fetter that arises dependent on both (ear and sounds); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the organ of smell and odors and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the organ of smell and odors); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the organ of taste and flavors and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the organ of taste and flavors); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the organ of touch and tactual objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the organ of touch and tactual objects); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands consciousness and mental objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both (consciousness and mental objects); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six externally sense-bases."

 

4. The Seven Factors of Enlightenment

"And, further, o bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment."

 

"How, o bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment?"

 

"Here, o bhikkhus, when the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is present, a bhikkhu knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of mindfulness'; or when the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of mindfulness'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects'; when the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be and how the completion of culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of energy is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of energy'; when the enlightenment factor of energy is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of energy'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of joy is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of joy'; when the enlightenment factor of joy is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of joy'; and he understands how the rising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of joy comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of joy comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of calm is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of calm'; when the enlightenment factor of calm is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of calm'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of calm comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of calm comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of concentration is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of concentration'; when the enlightenment factor of concentration is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of concentration'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of equanimity is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of equanimity'; when the enlightenment factor of equanimity is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of equanimity'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects internally... and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment."

 

5. The Four Truths

"And, further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the Four Noble Truths.

 

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the Four Noble Truths?

 

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands: 'This is suffering,' according to reality; he understands: 'This is the origin of suffering,' according to reality; he understands: 'This is the cessation of suffering,' according to reality; and he understands: 'This is the road leading to the cessation of suffering,' according to realty.

 

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects internally or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects internally and externally."

 

"He lives contemplating origination things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in mental objects, or his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'Mental objects exist,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

 

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the Four Noble Truths."

 

ASSURANCE OF ATTAINMENT

 

"O bhikkhus, should any person maintain the Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner for seven years, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge (arahantship) here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning (the Third Stage of Supramundane Fulfillment).

 

"O bhikkhus, let alone seven years. Should a person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, in this manner, for six years... for five years... four years... three years... two years... one year, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

 

"O bhikkhus, let alone a year. Should any person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, in the manner, for seven months, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

 

"O bhikkhus, let alone seven months. Should any person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner for six months... five months... four months... three months... two months... one month... half-a-month, then, by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

 

"O bhikkhus, let alone half-a-month. Should any person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner for a week, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

 

"Because of this was it said: 'This is the only way, O bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely, the Four Arousings of Mindfulness."

 

Thus spoke the Blessed One. Satisfied, the bhikkhus approved of his words.



 

 

Satipatthana Sutta

The Foundations of Mindfulness

translated by Nyanasatta Thera


Introduction


The philosophy of Buddhism is contained in the Four Noble Truths  [1]

The truth of suffering reveals that all forms of becoming, all the various elements of existence comprised in the “five aggregates” or groups of existence — also called the “five categories which are the objects of clinging” (paNtildecupadanakkhandha) — are inseparable from suffering as long as they remain objects of grasping or clinging. All corporeality, all feelings and sensations, all perceptions, all mental formations and consciousness, being impermanent, are a source of suffering, are conditioned phenomena and hence not-self (anicca, dukkha, anatta). Ceaseless origination and dissolution best characterize the process of existence called life, for all elements of this flux of becoming continually arise from conditions created by us and then pass away, giving rise to new elements of being according to one’s actions or kamma.

All suffering originates from craving, and our very existence is conditioned by craving, which is threefold: the craving for sense pleasures (kama-tanha), craving for continued and renewed existence (bhava-tanha), and craving for annihilation after death (vibhava-tanha). This is the truth of the origin of suffering.

The attainment of perfect happiness, the breaking of the chain of rebirths and suffering through the realization of Nibbana, is possible only through the utter extirpation of that threefold craving. This is the truth of suffering’s cessation.

The methods of training for the liberation from all suffering are applied by following the Noble Eightfold Path of Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Living, Right Exertion, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration of Mind. The Noble Eightfold Path consists of three types of training summed up in: virtuous conduct (sila), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (paNtildeNtildea). This is the truth of the way that leads to the cessation of suffering.

The prevalence of suffering and absence of freedom and happiness is due to man’s subjection to the three roots of all unskill and evil, and all unwholesome actions (akusalakamma), viz. lust, hatred and delusion (lobha, dosa, moha).

Virtuous conduct casts out lust. The calm of true concentration and mental culture conquers hatred. Wisdom or right understanding, also called direct knowledge resulting from meditation, dispels all delusion. All these three types of training are possible only through the cultivation of constant mindfulness (sati), which forms the seventh link of the Noble Eightfold Path. Mindfulness is called a controlling faculty (indriya) and a spiritual power (bala), and is also the first of the seven factors of enlightenment (satta bojjhanga). [2] Right Mindfulness (samma-sati) has to be present in every skillful or karmically wholesome thought moment (kusalacitta). It is the basis of all earnest endeavour (appamada) for liberation, and maintains in us the sense of urgency to strive for enlightenment or Nibbana.

The Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness, theSatipatthana Sutta, is the tenth discourse of the Middle Length Collection (Majjhima Nikaya) of the Discourses of the Enlightened One. It is this version which is translated in the present publication. There is another version of it, in the Collection of Long Discourses (Digha Nikaya No.22), which differs only by a detailed explanation of the Four Noble Truths.

The great importance of the Discourse on Mindfulness has never been lost to the Buddhists of the Theravada tradition. In Sri Lanka, even when the knowledge and practice of the Dhamma was at its lowest ebb through centuries of foreign domination, the Sinhala Buddhists never forgot the Satipatthana Sutta. Memorizing the Sutta has been an unfailing practice among the Buddhists, and even today in Sri Lanka there are large numbers who can recite the Sutta from memory. It is a common sight to see on full-moon days devotees who are observing the Eight Precepts, engaged in community recital of the Sutta. Buddhists are intent on hearing this Discourse even in the last moments of their lives; and at the bedside of a dying Buddhist either monks or laymen recite this venerated text.

In the private shrine room of a Buddhist home, the book of the Satipatthana Sutta is displayed prominently as an object of reverence. Monastery libraries of palm-leaf manuscripts have the Sutta bound in highly ornamented covers.

One such book with this Discourse written in Sinhala script on palm-leaf, has found its way from Sri Lanka as far as the State University Library of Bucharest in Rumania. This was disclosed while collecting material for the Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, when an Esperantist correspondent gave us a list of a hundred books on Buddhism found in the Rumanian University Libraries.

Mindfulness of Breathing (Ānapanasati)

The subjects dealt with in the Satipatthana Sutta are corporeality, feeling, mind and mind objects, being the universe of right Buddhist contemplation for deliverance. A very prominent place in the Discourse is occupied by the discussion on mindfulness of breathing (anapanasati). To make the present publication of greater practical value to the reader, an introductory exposition of the methods of practicing that particular meditation will now be given.

Mindfulness of breathing takes the highest place among the various subjects of Buddhist meditation. It has been recommended and praised by the Enlightened One thus: “This concentration through mindfulness of breathing, when developed and practiced much, is both peaceful and sublime, it is an unadulterated blissful abiding, and it banishes at once and stills evil unprofitable thoughts as soon as they arise.” Though of such a high order, the initial stages of this meditation are well within the reach of a beginner though he be only a lay student of the Buddha-Dhamma. Both in the Discourse here translated, and in the 118th Discourse of the same Collection (the Majjhima Nikaya), which specifically deals with that meditation, the initial instructions for the practice are clearly laid down:

Herein, monks, a monk, having gone to the forest or the root of a tree or to an empty place, sits down with his legs crossed, keeps his body erect and his mindfulness alert. Ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. Breathing in a long breath, he knows, “I am breathing in a long breath”; breathing out a long breath, he knows, “I am breathing out a long breath.” Breathing in a short breath, he knows, “I am breathing in a short breath”; breathing out a short breath, he knows, “I am breathing out a short breath.” “Experiencing the whole (breath) body, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself.

These are instructions given by the Enlightened One to the monks who, after their alms round, had the whole remaining day free for meditation. But what about the lay Buddhist who has a limited time to devote to this practice? Among the places described as fit for the practice of meditation, one is available to all: suNtildeNtildeagara, lit. “empty house,” may mean any room in the house that has no occupant at that moment, and one may in the course of the twenty-four hours of the day find a room in one’s house that is empty and undisturbed. Those who work all day and feel too tired in the evening for meditation may devote the early hours of the morning to the practice of mindfulness of breathing.

The other problem is the right posture for meditation. The full “lotus posture” of the yogi, the padmasana, as we see it in the Buddha statues, proves nowadays rather difficult to many, even to easterners. A youthful meditator, however, or even a middle-aged one, can well train himself in that posture in stages. He may, for instance, start with sitting on a low, broad chair or bed, bending only one leg and resting the other on the floor; and so, in gradual approximation, he may finally master that posture. There are also other easier postures of sitting with legs bent, for instance the half-lotus posture. It will be worth one’s effort to train oneself in such postures; but if one finds them difficult and uncomfortable at the outset it will not be advisable to delay or disturb one’s start with meditation proper on that account. One may allow a special time for sitting-practice, using it as best as one can for contemplation and reflection; but for the time being, the practice of meditation aiming at higher degrees of concentration may better be done in a posture that is comfortable. One may sit on a straight backed chair of a height that allows the legs to rest comfortably on the floor without strain. As soon however, as a cross-legged posture has become more comfortable, one should assume it for the practice of mindfulness of breathing, since it will allow one to sit in meditation for a longer time than is possible on a chair.

The meditator’s body and mind should be alert but not tense. A place with a dimmed light will be profitable since it will help to exclude diverting attention to visible objects.

The right place, time and posture are very important and often essential for a successful meditative effort.

Though we have been breathing throughout our life, we have done so devoid of mindfulness, and hence, when we try to follow each breath attentively, we find that the Buddhist teachers of old were right when they compared the natural state of an uncontrolled mind to an untamed calf. Our minds have long been dissipated among visible data and other objects of the senses and of thought, and hence do not yield easily to attempts at mind-control.

Suppose a cowherd wanted to tame a wild calf: he would take it away from the cow and tie it up apart with a rope to a stout post. Then the calf might dash to and fro, but being unable to get away and tired after its effort, it would eventually lie down by the post. So too, when the meditator wants to tame his own mind that has long been reared on the enjoyment of sense objects, he should take it away from places where these sense objects abound, and tie the mind to the post of in-breaths and out-breaths with the rope of mindfulness. And though his mind may then dash to and fro when deprived of its liberty to roam among the sense objects, it will ultimately settle down when mindfulness is persistent and strong.

When practicing mindfulness of breathing, attention should be focused at the tip of the nose or at the point of the upper lip immediately below where the current of air can be felt. The meditator’s attention should not leave this “focusing point” from where the in-coming and out-going breaths can be easily felt and observed. The meditator may become aware of the breath’s route through the body but he should not pay attention to it. At the beginning of the practice, the meditator should concentrate only on the in-breaths and out-breaths, and should not fall into any reflections about them. It is only at a later stage that he should apply himself to the arousing of knowledge and other states connected with the concentration.

In this brief introduction, only the first steps of the beginner can be discussed. For more information the student may refer to the English translation of the Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purification, chap. VIII) by Bhikkhu Ntildeanamoli, or toMindfulness of Breathing by Bhikkhu Ntildeanamoli, and to The Heart of Buddhist Meditation by Nyanaponika Thera.  [3]

The lay Buddhist who undertakes this practice will first take the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts; he will review the reflections on the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha, transmit thoughts of loving-kindness (metta) in all directions, recollect that this meditation will help him to reach the goal of deliverance through direct knowledge and mental calm; and only then should he start with the mindfulness of breathing proper, first by way of counting.  [4]

Counting

The Buddhist teachers of old recommend that a beginner should start the practice by counting the breaths mentally. In doing so he should not stop short of five or go beyond ten or make any break in the series. By stopping short of five breaths his mind has not enough room for contemplation, and by going beyond ten his mind takes the number rather than the breaths for its objects, and any break in the series would upset the meditation.

When counting, the meditator should first count when the in-breath or the out-breath is completed, not when it begins. So taking the in-breath first, he counts mentally ’one’ when that in-breath is complete, then he counts ’two’ when the out-breath is complete, ’three’ after the next in-breath, and so on up to ten, and then again from one to ten, and so he should continue.

After some practice in counting at the completion of a breath, breathing may becoming faster. The breaths, however, should not be made longer or shorter intentionally. The meditator has to be just mindful of their occurrence as they come and go. Now he may try counting ’one’ when hebegins to breathe in or breathe out, counting up to five or ten, and then again from one to five or ten. If one takes both the in-breath and out-breath as ’one,’ it is better to count only up to five.

Counting should be employed until one can dispense with it in following the sequence of breaths successively. Counting is merely a device to assist in excluding stray thoughts. It is, as it were, a guideline or railing for supporting mindfulness until it can do without such help. There may be those who will feel the counting more as a complication than a help, and they may well omit it, attending directly to the flow of the respiration by way of “connecting the successive breaths.”

Connecting

After the counting has been discarded, the meditator should now continue his practice by way of connecting (anubandhana); that is, by following mindfully the in and out breaths without recourse to counting, and yet without a break in attentiveness. Here too, the breaths should not be followed beyond the nostrils where the respiratory air enters and leaves. The meditator must strive to be aware of the whole breath, in its entire duration and without missing one single phase, but his attention must not leave the place of contact, the nostrils, or that point of the upper lip where the current of air touches.

While following the in-breaths and out-breaths thus, they become fainter and fainter, and at times it is not easy to remain aware of that subtle sensation of touch caused by the respiration. Keener mindfulness is required to keep track of the breaths then. But if the meditator perseveres, one day he will feel a different sensation, a feeling of ease and happiness, and occasionally there appears before his mental eye something like a luminous star or a similar sign, which indicates that one approaches the stage of access concentration. Steadying the newly acquired sign, one may cultivate full mental absorption (jhana) or at least the preliminary concentration as a basis for practicing insight.

The practice of mindfulness of breathing is meant for both mental calm and insight (samatha and vipassana). Direct knowledge being the object of Buddhist meditation, the concentration gained by the meditative practice should be used for the clear understanding of reality as manifest in oneself and in the entire range of one’s experience.

Though penetrative insight leading to Nibbana is the ultimate object, progress in mindfulness and concentration will also bring many benefits in our daily lives. If we have become habituated to follow our breaths for a longer period of time and can exclude all (or almost all) intruding irrelevant thoughts, mindfulness, self-control and efficiency are sure to increase in all our activities. Just as our breathing, so also other processes of body and mind, will become clearer to us, and we shall come to know more of ourselves.

It has been said by the Buddha: “Mindfulness of breathing, developed and repeatedly practiced, is of great fruit, of great advantage, for it fulfils the four foundations of mindfulness; the four foundations of mindfulness, developed and repeatedly practiced, fulfil the seven enlightenment factors; the seven enlightenment factors, developed and repeatedly practiced, fulfil clear-vision and deliverance.” Clear vision and deliverance, or direct knowledge and the bliss of liberation, are the highest fruit of the application of mindfulness.


The Foundations of Mindfulness

Satipatthana Sutta

Thus have I heard. At one time the Blessed One was living among the Kurus, at Kammasadamma, a market town of the Kuru people. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhu thus: “Monks,” and they replied to him, “Venerable Sir.” The Blessed One spoke as follows:
This is the only way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely, the four foundations of mindfulness. What are the four?
Herein (in this teaching) a monk lives contemplating the body in the body, [5] ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness,  [6] ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief.

I. The Contemplation of the Body

1. Mindfulness of Breathing

And how does a monk live contemplating the body in the body?
Herein, monks, a monk, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree or to an empty place, sits down with his legs crossed, keeps his body erect and his mindfulness alert.  [7]
Ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. Breathing in a long breath, he knows, “I am breathing in a long breath”; breathing out a long breath, he knows, “I am breathing out a long breath”; breathing in a short breath, he knows, “I am breathing in a short breath”; breathing out a short breath, he knows, “I am breathing out a short breath.”
Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself.
Just as a skillful turner or turner’s apprentice, making a long turn, knows, “I am making a long turn,” or making a short turn, knows, “I am making a short turn,” just so the monk, breathing in a long breath, knows, “I am breathing in a long breath”; breathing out a long breath, he knows, “I am breathing out a long breath”; breathing in a short breath, he knows, “I am breathing in a short breath”; breathing out a short breath, he knows, “I am breathing out a short breath.” “Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself.
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.  [8] He lives contemplating origination factors  [9] in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors  [10] in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors  [11] in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: “The body exists,”  [12] to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, [13] and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.

2. The Postures of the Body

And further, monks, a monk knows, when he is going, “I am going”; he knows, when he is standing, “I am standing”; he knows, when he is sitting, “I am sitting”; he knows, when he is lying down, “I am lying down”; or just as his body is disposed so he knows it.
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in the body.  [14] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: “The body exists,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.

3. Mindfulness with Clear Comprehension

And further, monks, a monk, in going forward and back, applies clear comprehension; in looking straight on and looking away, he applies clear comprehension; in bending and in stretching, he applies clear comprehension; in wearing robes and carrying the bowl, he applies clear comprehension; in eating, drinking, chewing and savouring, he applies clear comprehension; in walking, in standing, in sitting, in falling asleep, in waking, in speaking and in keeping silence, he applies clear comprehension.
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body…

4. The Reflection on the Repulsiveness of the Body

And further, monks, a monk reflects on this very body enveloped by the skin and full of manifold impurity, from the soles up, and from the top of the head-hairs down, thinking thus: “There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, gorge, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid, urine.”
Just as if there were a double-mouthed provision bag full of various kinds of grain such as hill paddy, paddy, green gram, cow-peas, sesamum, and husked rice, and a man with sound eyes, having opened that bag, were to take stock of the contents thus: “This is hill paddy, this is paddy, this is green gram, this is cow-pea, this is sesamum, this is husked rice.” Just so, monks, a monk reflects on this very body enveloped by the skin and full of manifold impurity, from the soles up, and from the top of the head-hairs down, thinking thus: “There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, gorge, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid, urine.”
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body…

5. The Reflection on the Material Elements

And further, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, however it be placed or disposed, by way of the material elements: “There are in this body the element of earth, the element of water, the element of fire, the element of wind.”  [15]
Just as if, monks, a clever cow-butcher or his apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions, should be sitting at the junction of four high roads, in the same way, a monk reflects on this very body, as it is placed or disposed, by way of the material elements: “There are in this body the elements of earth, water, fire, and wind.”
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body…

6. The Nine Cemetery Contemplations

(1) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body dead one, two, or three days; swollen, blue and festering, thrown in the charnel ground, he then applies this perception to his own body thus: “Verily, also my own body is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it.”
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-factors in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-factors in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: “The body exists,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.
(2) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground, being eaten by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals or by different kinds of worms, he then applies this perception to his own body thus: “Verily, also my own body is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it.”
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body…
(3) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton with some flesh and blood attached to it, held together by the tendons…
(4) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton blood-besmeared and without flesh, held together by the tendons…
(5) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton without flesh and blood, held together by the tendons…
(6) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to disconnected bones, scattered in all directions—here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, a shin bone, a thigh bone, the pelvis, spine and skull…
(7) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground, reduced to bleached bones of conchlike colour…
(8) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground reduced to bones, more than a year-old, lying in a heap…
(9) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground, reduced to bones gone rotten and become dust, he then applies this perception to his own body thus: “Verily, also my own body is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it.”
Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: “The body exists,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.

II. The Contemplation of Feeling

And how, monks, does a monk live contemplating feelings in feelings?
Herein, monks, a monk when experiencing a pleasant feeling knows, “I experience a pleasant feeling”; when experiencing a painful feeling, he knows, “I experience a painful feeling”; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling,” he knows, “I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling.” When experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, he knows, “I experience a pleasant worldly feeling”; when experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling, he knows, “I experience a pleasant spiritual feeling”; when experiencing a painful worldly feeling, he knows, “I experience a painful worldly feeling”; when experiencing a painful spiritual feeling, he knows, “I experience a painful spiritual feeling”; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling, he knows, “I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling”; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling, he knows, “I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling.”
Thus he lives contemplating feelings in feelings internally, or he lives contemplating feelings in feelings externally, or he lives contemplating feelings in feelings internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in feelings, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in feelings, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in feelings.  [16] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, “Feeling exists,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating feelings in feelings.

III. The Contemplation of Consciousness

And how, monks, does a monk live contemplating consciousness in consciousness?
Herein, monks, a monk knows the consciousness with lust, as with lust; the consciousness without lust, as without lust; the consciousness with hate, as with hate; the consciousness without hate, as without hate; the consciousness with ignorance, as with ignorance; the consciousness without ignorance, as without ignorance; the shrunken state of consciousness, as the shrunken state;  [17] the distracted state of consciousness, as the distracted state;  [18] the developed state of consciousness as the developed state;  [19] the undeveloped state of consciousness as the undeveloped state;  [20] the state of consciousness with some other mental state superior to it, as the state with something mentally higher;  [21] the state of consciousness with no other mental state superior to it, as the state with nothing mentally higher;  [22] the concentrated state of consciousness, as the concentrated state; the unconcentrated state of consciousness, as the unconcentrated state; the freed state of consciousness, as the freed state;  [23] and the unfreed state of consciousness as the unfreed state.
Thus he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness externally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in consciousness, or he lives contemplating dissolution-factors in consciousness, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in consciousness.  [24] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, “Consciousness exists,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness.

IV. The Contemplation of Mental Objects

1. The Five Hindrances

And how, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in mental objects?
Herein, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances.
How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances?
Herein, monks, when sense-desire is present, a monk knows, “There is sense-desire in me,” or when sense-desire is not present, he knows, “There is no sense-desire in me.” He knows how the arising of the non-arisen sense-desire comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen sense-desire comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sense-desire comes to be.
When anger is present, he knows, “There is anger in me,” or when anger is not present, he knows, “There is no anger in me.” He knows how the arising of the non-arisen anger comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen anger comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned anger comes to be.
When sloth and torpor are present, he knows, “There are sloth and torpor in me,” or when sloth and torpor are not present, he knows, “There are no sloth and torpor in me.” He knows how the arising of the non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sloth and torpor comes to be.
When agitation and remorse are present, he knows, “There are agitation and remorse in me,” or when agitation and remorse are not present, he knows, “There are no agitation and remorse in me.” He knows how the arising of the non-arisen agitation and remorse comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen agitation and remorse comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned agitation and remorse comes to be.
When doubt is present, he knows, “There is doubt in me,” or when doubt is not present, he knows, “There is no doubt in me.” He knows how the arising of the non-arisen doubt comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen doubt comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be.
Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in mental objects.  [25] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, “Mental objects exist,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances.

2. The Five Aggregates of Clinging

And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging.  [26]
How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging?
Herein, monks, a monk thinks, “Thus is material form;thus is the arising of material form; and thus is the disappearance of material form. Thus is feeling; thus is the arising of feeling; and thus is the disappearance of feeling. Thus is perception; thus is the arising of perception; and thus is the disappearance of perception. Thus are formations; thus is the arising of formations; and thus is the disappearance of formations. Thus is consciousness; thus is the arising of consciousness; and thus is the disappearance of consciousness.”
Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in mental objects.  [27] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, “Mental objects exist,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging.

3. The Six Internal and External Sense Bases

And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases.
How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases?
Herein, monks, a monk knows the eye and visual forms and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the eye and forms);  [28] he knows how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.
He knows the ear and sounds … the nose and smells … the tongue and flavours … the body and tactual objects … the mind and mental objects, and the fetter that arises dependent on both; he knows how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.
Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in mental objects.  [29] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, “Mental objects exist,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases.

4. The Seven Factors of Enlightenment

And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment.
How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment?
Herein, monks, when the enlightenment-factor ofmindfulness is present, the monk knows, “The enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is in me,” or when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is absent, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is not in me”; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be; and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be.
When the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is present, the monk knows, “The enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is in me”; when the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is absent, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is not in me”; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be.
When the enlightenment-factor of energy is present, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of energy is in me”; when the enlightenment-factor of energy is absent, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of energy is not in me”; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of energy comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of energy comes to be.
When the enlightenment-factor of joy is present, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of joy is in me”; when the enlightenment-factor of joy is absent, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of joy is not in me”; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of joy comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of joy comes to be.
When the enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is present, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is in me”; when the enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is absent, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is not in me”; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of tranquillity comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of tranquillity comes to be.
When the enlightenment-factor of concentration is present, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of concentration is in me”; when the enlightenment-factor of concentration is absent, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of concentration is not in me”; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be.
When the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is present, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of equanimity is in me”; when the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is absent, he knows, “The enlightenment-factor of equanimity is not in me”; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to be.
Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-factors in mental objects.  [30] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, “Mental objects exist,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment.

5. The Four Noble Truths

And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the four noble truths.
How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the four noble truths?
Herein, monks, a monk knows, “This is suffering,” according to reality; he knows, “This is the origin of suffering,” according to reality; he knows, “This is the cessation of suffering,” according to reality; he knows “This is the road leading to the cessation of suffering,” according to reality.
Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-factors in mental objects.  [31] Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, “Mental objects exist,” to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the four noble truths.

* * *

Verily, monks, whosoever practices these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for seven years, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge (arahantship) here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of nonreturning.  [32]
O monks, let alone seven years. Should any person practice these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for six years… five years… four years… three years… two years… one year, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of nonreturning.
O monks, let alone a year. Should any person practice these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for seven months… six months… five months… four months… three months… two months… a month… half a month, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of nonreturning.
O monks, let alone half a month. Should any person practice these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for a week, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of nonreturning.
Because of this it was said: “This is the only way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely the four foundations of mindfulness.”
Thus spoke the Blessed One. Satisfied, the monks approved of his words.

Notes

 

  1. An exhaustive exposition of the Four Noble Truths is found in The Word of the Buddha by Nyanatiloka Mahathera. See also Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha, translated by Ntildeanamoli Thera (BPS Wheel No. 17) and The Four Noble Truths by Francis Story (BPSWheel No. 34/35). 

  2. See Piyadassi Thera, The Seven Factors of Enlightenment(BPS Wheel No. 1). 

  3. All published by the Buddhist Publication Society. 

  4. On the Refuges and Precepts, see The Mirror of the Dhamma (BPS Wheel No. 54). 

  5. The repetition of the phrases ’contemplating the body in the body,’ ’feelings in feelings,’ etc. is meant to impress upon the meditator the importance of remaining aware whether, in the sustained attention directed upon a single chosen object, one is still keeping to it, and has not strayed into the field of another contemplation. For instance, when contemplating any bodily process, a meditator may unwittingly be side-tracked into a consideration of his feelings connected with that bodily process. He should then be clearly aware that he has left his original subject, and is engaged in the contemplation of feeling. 

  6. Mind (Pali citta, also consciousness or viNtildeNtildeana) in this connection means the states of mind or units in the stream of mind of momentary duration. Mental objects,dhamma, are the mental contents or factors of consciousness making up the single states of mind. 

  7. Literally, “setting up mindfulness in front.” 

  8. Internally’: contemplating his own breathing; ’externally’: contemplating another’s breathing; ’internally and externally’: contemplating one’s own and another’s breathing, alternately, with uninterrupted attention. In the beginning one pays attention to one’s own breathing only, and it is only in advanced stages that for the sake of practicing insight, one by inference at times pays attention also to another person’s process of breathing. 

  9. The origination factors (samudaya-dhamma), that is, the conditions of the origination of the breath-body; these are: the body in its entirety, nasal aperture and mind. 

  10. The conditions of the dissolution of the breath-body are: the destruction of the body and of the nasal aperture, and the ceasing of mental activity. 

  11. The contemplation of both, alternately. 

  12. That is, only impersonal bodily processes exist, without a self, soul, spirit or abiding essence or substance. The corresponding phrase in the following contemplations should be understood accordingly. 

  13. Detached from craving and wrong view. 

  14. All contemplations of the body, excepting the preceding one, have as factors of origination: ignorance, craving, kamma, food, and the general characteristic of originating; the factors of dissolution are: disappearance of ignorance, craving, kamma, food, and the general characteristic of dissolving. 

  15. The so-called ’elements’ are the primary qualities of matter, explained by Buddhist tradition as solidity (earth), adhesion (water), caloricity (fire) and motion (wind or air). 

  16. The factors of origination are here: ignorance, craving, kamma, and sense-impression, and the general characteristic of originating; the factors of dissolution are: the disappearance of the four, and the general characteristic of dissolving. 

  17. This refers to a rigid and indolent state of mind. 

  18. This refers to a restless mind. 

  19. The consciousness of the meditative absorptions of the fine-corporeal and uncorporeal sphere (rupa-arupa-jhana). 

  20. The ordinary consciousness of the sensuous state of existence (kamavacara). 

  21. The consciousness of the sensuous state of existence, having other mental states superior to it. 

  22. The consciousness of the fine-corporeal and the uncorporeal spheres, having no mundane mental state superior to it. 

  23. Temporarily freed from the defilements either through the methodical practice of insight (vipassana) freeing from single evil states by force of their opposites, or through the meditative absorptions (jhana). 

  24. The factors of origination consist here of ignorance, craving, kamma, body-and-mind (nama-rupa), and the general characteristic of originating; the factors of dissolution are: the disappearance of ignorance, etc., and the general characteristic of dissolving. 

  25. The factors of origination are here the conditions which produce the hindrances, such as wrong reflection, etc., the factors of dissolution are the conditions which remove the hindrances, e.g., right reflection. 

  26. These five groups or aggregates constitute the so-called personality. By making them objects of clinging, existence, in the form of repeated births and deaths, is perpetuated. 

  27. The origination-and-dissolution factors of the five aggregates: for material form, the same as for the postures (Note 18); for feeling, the same as for the contemplation of feeling (Note 20); for perception and formations, the same as for feeling (Note 20); for consciousness, the same as for the contemplation of consciousness (Note 28). 

  28. The usual enumeration of the ten principal fetters (samyojana), as given in the Discourse Collection (Sutta Pitaka), is as follows: (1) self-illusion, (2) scepticism, (3) attachment to rules and rituals, (4) sensual lust, (5) ill-will, (6) craving for fine-corporeal existence, (7) craving for incorporeal existence, (8) conceit, (9) restlessness, (10) ignorance. 

  29. Origination factors of the ten physical sense-bases are ignorance, craving, kamma, food, and the general characteristic of originating; dissolution factors: the general characteristic of dissolving and the disappearance of ignorance, etc. The origination-and-dissolution factors of the mind-base are the same as those of feeling (Note 20). 

  30. Just the conditions conducive to the origination and dissolution of the factors of enlightenment comprise the origination-and-dissolution factors here. 

  31. The origination-and-dissolution factors of the truths should be understood as the arising and passing of suffering, craving, and the path; the truth of cessation is not to be included in this contemplation since it has neither origination nor dissolution. 

  32. That is, the non-returning to the world of sensuality. This is the last stage before the attainment of the final goal of arahantship

Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ

105. Evaṃ me sutaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘bhikkhavo’’ti. ‘‘Bhadante’’ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –

Uddeso

106. ‘‘Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, sokaparidevānaṃ [pariddavānaṃ (sī. pī.)] samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.

‘‘Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

Uddeso niṭṭhito.

Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

107. ‘‘Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati, pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā, ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya, parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So satova assasati, satova [sato (sī. syā.)] passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati , ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati.

‘‘Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakārantevāsī vā dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā añchanto ‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ti pajānāti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti; ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati. ‘Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho [evampi (sī. syā. pī.)], bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Ānāpānapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Kāyānupassanā iriyāpathapabbaṃ

108. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ti pajānāti, ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ti pajānāti, sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā panassa kāyo paṇihito hoti tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati. ‘Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Iriyāpathapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Kāyānupassanā sampajānapabbaṃ

109. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati…pe… evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Sampajānapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Kāyānupassanā paṭikūlamanasikārapabbaṃ

110. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ uddhaṃ pādatalā, adho kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati – ‘atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃnhāru [nahāru (sī. syā. pī.)] aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā mutta’nti [muttaṃ matthaluṅganti (ka.)].

‘‘Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā putoḷi [mūtoḷī (sī. syā. pī.)] pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ – sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya – ‘ime sālī ime vīhī ime muggā ime māsā ime tilā ime taṇḍulā’ti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ uddhaṃ pādatalā, adho kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati – ‘atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā…pe… mutta’nti.

‘‘Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati…pe… evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Paṭikūlamanasikārapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Kāyānupassanā dhātumanasikārapabbaṃ

111. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati – ‘atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū’ti.

‘‘Seyyathāpi , bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā gāviṃ vadhitvā catumahāpathe [cātummahāpathe (sī. syā. pī.)] bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati – ‘atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū’ti. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati…pe… evampi kho, bhikkhave , bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Dhātumanasikārapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Kāyānupassanā navasivathikapabbaṃ

112. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ ekāhamataṃ vā dvīhamataṃ vā tīhamataṃ vā uddhumātakaṃ vinīlakaṃ vipubbakajātaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati – ‘ayampi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ti [etaṃ anatītoti (sī. pī.)]. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati…pe… evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ byagghehi vā khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā [gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṃ, suvānehi vā khajjamānaṃ, sigālehi vā (syā. pī.)] khajjamānaṃ vividhehi vā pāṇakajātehi khajjamānaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati – ‘ayampi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ti. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati…pe… evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ samaṃsalohitaṃ nhārusambandhaṃ…pe… aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ nimaṃsalohitamakkhitaṃ nhārusambandhaṃ…pe… aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ apagatamaṃsalohitaṃ nhārusambandhaṃ…pe… aṭṭhikāni apagatasambandhāni [apagatanhārusambandhāni (syā.)] disā vidisā vikkhittāni, aññena hatthaṭṭhikaṃ aññena pādaṭṭhikaṃ aññena gopphakaṭṭhikaṃ[‘‘aññena gopphakaṭṭhika’’nti idaṃ sī. syā. pī. potthakesu natthi] aññena jaṅghaṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūruṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṭiṭṭhikaṃ [aññena kaṭaṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭhaṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṇṭakaṭṭhikaṃ aññena phāsukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena uraṭṭhikaṃ aññena aṃsaṭṭhikaṃ aññena bāhuṭṭhikaṃ (syā.)] aññena phāsukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭhiṭṭhikaṃ aññena khandhaṭṭhikaṃ [aññena kaṭaṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭhaṭṭhikaṃ aññena kaṇṭakaṭṭhikaṃ aññena phāsukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena uraṭṭhikaṃ aññena aṃsaṭṭhikaṃ aññena bāhuṭṭhikaṃ (syā.)] aññena gīvaṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena dantaṭṭhikaṃ aññena sīsakaṭāhaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati – ‘ayampi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ti. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati…pe… evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ, aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkhavaṇṇapaṭibhāgāni [saṅkhavaṇṇūpanibhāni (sī. syā. pī.)] …pe… aṭṭhikāni puñjakitāni terovassikāni…pe… aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇakajātāni . So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati – ‘ayampi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ti. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati. ‘Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Navasivathikapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Cuddasakāyānupassanā niṭṭhitā.

Vedanānupassanā

113. ‘‘Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā [sukhaṃ, dukkhaṃ, adukkhamasukhaṃ (sī. syā. pī. ka.)] vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā [sukhaṃ, dukkhaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ (sī. syā. pī. ka.)] vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; adukkhamasukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; sāmisaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti; iti ajjhattaṃ vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati. ‘Atthi vedanā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati , na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati.

Vedanānupassanā niṭṭhitā.

Cittānupassanā

114. ‘‘Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sarāgaṃ citta’nti pajānāti, vītarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītarāgaṃ citta’nti pajānāti; sadosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sadosaṃ citta’nti pajānāti, vītadosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītadosaṃ citta’nti pajānāti; samohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samohaṃ citta’nti pajānāti, vītamohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītamohaṃ citta’nti pajānāti; saṃkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘saṃkhittaṃ citta’nti pajānāti, vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vikkhittaṃ citta’nti pajānāti; mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘mahaggataṃ citta’nti pajānāti, amahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘amahaggataṃ citta’nti pajānāti; sauttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sauttaraṃ citta’nti pajānāti, anuttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘anuttaraṃ citta’nti pajānāti; samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samāhitaṃ citta’nti pajānāti, asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘asamāhitaṃ citta’nti pajānāti; vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vimuttaṃ citta’nti pajānāti, avimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘avimuttaṃ citta’nti pajānāti. Iti ajjhattaṃ vā citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati. ‘Atthi citta’nti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati . Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.

Cittānupassanā niṭṭhitā.

Dhammānupassanā nīvaraṇapabbaṃ

115. ‘‘Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu. Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu?

‘‘Idha , bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ kāmacchandaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ kāmacchando’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ kāmacchandaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ kāmacchando’ti pajānāti; yathā ca anuppannassa kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa kāmacchandassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa kāmacchandassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ byāpādaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ byāpādo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ byāpādaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ byāpādo’ti pajānāti; yathā ca anuppannassa byāpādassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa byāpādassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa byāpādassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ thīnamiddhaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ thīnamiddha’nti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ thīnamiddhaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ thīnamiddha’nti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa thīnamiddhassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa thīnamiddhassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa thīnamiddhassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkucca’nti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkucca’nti pajānāti; yathā ca anuppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa uddhaccakukkuccassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vicikicchaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ vicikicchā’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vicikicchaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ vicikicchā’ti pajānāti; yathā ca anuppannāya vicikicchāya uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannāya vicikicchāya pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnāya vicikicchāya āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati , samudayavayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati. ‘Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Dhammānupassanā khandhapabbaṃ

116. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu. Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu – ‘iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo; iti vedanā, iti vedanāya samudayo, iti vedanāya atthaṅgamo; iti saññā, iti saññāya samudayo, iti saññāya atthaṅgamo; iti saṅkhārā, iti saṅkhārānaṃ samudayo, iti saṅkhārānaṃ atthaṅgamo; iti viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti; iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati. ‘Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu.

Khandhapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Dhammānupassanā āyatanapabbaṃ

117. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu. Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu?

‘‘Idha , bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhuñca pajānāti, rūpe ca pajānāti, yañca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ tañca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Sotañca pajānāti, sadde ca pajānāti, yañca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ tañca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Ghānañca pajānāti, gandhe ca pajānāti, yañca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ tañca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Jivhañca pajānāti, rase ca pajānāti, yañca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ tañca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Kāyañca pajānāti, phoṭṭhabbe ca pajānāti, yañca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ tañca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Manañca pajānāti, dhamme ca pajānāti, yañca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ tañca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati. ‘Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu.

Āyatanapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Dhammānupassanā bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ

118. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu. Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti , yathā ca anuppannassa pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti.

‘‘Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti tañca pajānāti .

‘‘Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati. ‘Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu.

Bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ [bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ. paṭhamabhāṇavāraṃ (syā.)].

Dhammānupassanā saccapabbaṃ

119. ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu. Kathañca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘idaṃ dukkha’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.

Paṭhamabhāṇavāro niṭṭhito.

Dukkhasaccaniddeso

120. ‘‘Katamañca , bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ? Jātipi dukkhā, jarāpi dukkhā, maraṇampi dukkhaṃ, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsāpi dukkhā, appiyehi sampayogopi dukkho, piyehi vippayogopi dukkho[‘‘appiyehi…pe… vippayogopi dukkho’’ti pāṭho ceva taṃniddeso ca sī. pī. potthakesu na dissati, sumaṅgalavilāsiniyaṃpi taṃsaṃvaṇṇanā natthi], yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ, saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā[pañcupādānakkhandhāpi (ka.)] dukkhā.

121. ‘‘Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, jāti.

122. ‘‘Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jarā? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jarā jīraṇatā khaṇḍiccaṃ pāliccaṃ valittacatā āyuno saṃhāni indriyānaṃ paripāko, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, jarā.

123. ‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, maraṇaṃ? Yaṃ [sumaṅgalavilāsinī oloketabbā] tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhā tamhā sattanikāyā cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaṃ maccu maraṇaṃ kālaṅkiriyā khandhānaṃ bhedo kaḷevarassa nikkhepo jīvitindriyassupacchedo, idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, maraṇaṃ.

124. ‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, soko? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa soko socanā socitattaṃ antosoko antoparisoko, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, soko.

125. ‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paridevo? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa ādevo paridevo ādevanā paridevanā ādevitattaṃ paridevitattaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, paridevo.

126. ‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ? Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, kāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ kāyikaṃ asātaṃ kāyasamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ.

127. ‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, domanassaṃ? Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, cetasikaṃ dukkhaṃ cetasikaṃ asātaṃ manosamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, domanassaṃ.

128. ‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, upāyāso? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa āyāso upāyāso āyāsitattaṃ upāyāsitattaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, upāyāso.

129. ‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti aniṭṭhā akantā amanāpā rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā, ye vā panassa te honti anatthakāmā ahitakāmā aphāsukakāmā ayogakkhemakāmā, yā tehi saddhiṃ saṅgati samāgamo samodhānaṃ missībhāvo, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho.

130. ‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti iṭṭhā kantā manāpā rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā, ye vā panassa te honti atthakāmā hitakāmā phāsukakāmā yogakkhemakāmā mātā vā pitā vā bhātā vā bhaginī vā mittā vā amaccā vā ñātisālohitā vā, yā tehi saddhiṃ asaṅgati asamāgamo asamodhānaṃ amissībhāvo, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho.

131. ‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ? Jātidhammānaṃ, bhikkhave , sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati – ‘aho vata mayaṃ na jātidhammā assāma, na ca vata no jāti āgaccheyyā’ti. Na kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ, idampi yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ. Jarādhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati – ‘aho vata mayaṃ na jarādhammā assāma, na ca vata no jarā āgaccheyyā’ti. Na kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ, idampi yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ. Byādhidhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati – ‘aho vata mayaṃ na byādhidhammā assāma, na ca vata no byādhi āgaccheyyā’ti. Na kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ, idampi yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ. Maraṇadhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati – ‘aho vata mayaṃ na maraṇadhammā assāma, na ca vata no maraṇaṃ āgaccheyyā’ti. Na kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ, idampi yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ. Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati – ‘aho vata mayaṃ na sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā assāma, na ca vata no sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā āgaccheyyu’nti. Na kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ, idampi yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ.

132. ‘‘Katame ca, bhikkhave, saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā? Seyyathidaṃ – rūpupādānakkhandho, vedanupādānakkhandho, saññupādānakkhandho, saṅkhārupādānakkhandho, viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

Samudayasaccaniddeso

133. ‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayaṃ [dukkhasamudayo (syā.)] ariyasaccaṃ? Yāyaṃ taṇhā ponobbhavikā [ponobhavikā (sī. pī.)] nandīrāgasahagatā [nandirāgasahagatā (sī. syā. pī.)] tatratatrābhinandinī. Seyyathidaṃ – kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā.

‘‘Sā kho panesā, bhikkhave, taṇhā kattha uppajjamānā uppajjati, kattha nivisamānā nivisati? Yaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Kiñca loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ? Cakkhu loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotaṃ loke…pe… ghānaṃ loke… jivhā loke… kāyo loke… mano loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Rūpā loke… saddā loke… gandhā loke… rasā loke… phoṭṭhabbā loke… dhammā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Cakkhuviññāṇaṃ loke… sotaviññāṇaṃ loke… ghānaviññāṇaṃ loke… jivhāviññāṇaṃ loke… kāyaviññāṇaṃ loke… manoviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Cakkhusamphasso loke… sotasamphasso loke… ghānasamphasso loke… jivhāsamphasso loke… kāyasamphasso loke… manosamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Cakkhusamphassajā vedanā loke… sotasamphassajā vedanā loke… ghānasamphassajā vedanā loke… jivhāsamphassajā vedanā loke… kāyasamphassajā vedanā loke… manosamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Rūpasaññā loke… saddasaññā loke… gandhasaññā loke… rasasaññā loke… phoṭṭhabbasaññā loke… dhammasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Rūpasañcetanā loke… saddasañcetanā loke… gandhasañcetanā loke… rasasañcetanā loke… phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā loke… dhammasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Rūpataṇhā loke… saddataṇhā loke… gandhataṇhā loke… rasataṇhā loke… phoṭṭhabbataṇhā loke… dhammataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Rūpavitakko loke… saddavitakko loke… gandhavitakko loke… rasavitakko loke… phoṭṭhabbavitakko loke… dhammavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

‘‘Rūpavicāro loke… saddavicāro loke… gandhavicāro loke… rasavicāro loke… phoṭṭhabbavicāro loke… dhammavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

Nirodhasaccaniddeso

134. ‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhaṃ [dukkhanirodho (syā.)] ariyasaccaṃ? Yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo.

‘‘Sā kho panesā, bhikkhave, taṇhā kattha pahīyamānā pahīyati, kattha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati? Yaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Kiñca loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ? Cakkhu loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotaṃ loke…pe… ghānaṃ loke… jivhā loke… kāyo loke… mano loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Rūpā loke… saddā loke… gandhā loke… rasā loke… phoṭṭhabbā loke… dhammā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Cakkhuviññāṇaṃ loke… sotaviññāṇaṃ loke… ghānaviññāṇaṃ loke… jivhāviññāṇaṃ loke… kāyaviññāṇaṃ loke… manoviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Cakkhusamphasso loke… sotasamphasso loke… ghānasamphasso loke… jivhāsamphasso loke… kāyasamphasso loke… manosamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Cakkhusamphassajā vedanā loke… sotasamphassajā vedanā loke… ghānasamphassajā vedanā loke… jivhāsamphassajā vedanā loke… kāyasamphassajā vedanā loke… manosamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Rūpasaññā loke… saddasaññā loke… gandhasaññā loke… rasasaññā loke… phoṭṭhabbasaññā loke… dhammasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Rūpasañcetanā loke… saddasañcetanā loke… gandhasañcetanā loke… rasasañcetanā loke… phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā loke… dhammasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Rūpataṇhā loke… saddataṇhā loke… gandhataṇhā loke… rasataṇhā loke… phoṭṭhabbataṇhā loke… dhammataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Rūpavitakko loke… saddavitakko loke… gandhavitakko loke… rasavitakko loke… phoṭṭhabbavitakko loke… dhammavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

‘‘Rūpavicāro loke… saddavicāro loke… gandhavicāro loke… rasavicāro loke… phoṭṭhabbavicāro loke… dhammavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhāmānā nirujjhati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

Maggasaccaniddeso

135. ‘‘Katamañca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo seyyathidaṃ – sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi.

‘‘Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi? Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, dukkhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi.

‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo? Nekkhammasaṅkappo abyāpādasaṅkappo avihiṃsāsaṅkappo. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo.

‘‘Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāvācā? Musāvādā veramaṇī [veramaṇi (ka.)], pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī . Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvācā.

‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammākammanto? Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammākammanto.

‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāājīvo? Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako micchāājīvaṃ pahāya sammāājīvena jīvitaṃ kappeti. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāājīvo.

‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo.

‘‘Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsati.

‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati, sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti, yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ.

136. ‘‘Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati; samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati. ‘Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu.

Saccapabbaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

Dhammānupassanā niṭṭhitā.

137. ‘‘Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya satta vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme aññā; sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

‘‘Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta vassāni. Yo hi koci , bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha vassāni…pe… pañca vassāni… cattāri vassāni… tīṇi vassāni… dve vassāni… ekaṃ vassaṃ… tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ vassaṃ. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya satta māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme aññā; sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā. Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha māsāni…pe… pañca māsāni… cattāri māsāni… tīṇi māsāni… dve māsāni… ekaṃ māsaṃ… aḍḍhamāsaṃ… tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, aḍḍhamāso. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattāhaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme aññā sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā’’ti.

138. ‘‘‘Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāya dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā’ti. Iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vutta’’nti.

Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.

Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dasamaṃ.

Mūlapariyāyavaggo niṭṭhito paṭhamo.

Tassuddānaṃ – [ito paraṃ kesuci potthakesu imāpi gāthāyo evaṃ dissanti –§ajaraṃ amataṃ amatādhigamaṃ, phalamagganidassanaṃ dukkhanudaṃ. sahitattaṃ mahārasahassakaraṃ, bhūtamiti sāraṃ vividhaṃ suṇātha.§taḷākaṃ vasupūritaṃ ghammapathe, tividhaggipiḷesitanibbāpanaṃ. byādhipanudanaosadhayo, pacchimasuttapavarā ṭhapitā.§madhumandavarasāmadānaṃ, khiḍḍārati jananimanusaṅghātaṃ. tathā sutte veyyākaraṇā ṭhapitā, sakyaputtānamabhidamanatthāya.§paññāsaṃ ca diyaḍhḍasataṃ, dve ca veyyākaraṇaṃ apare ca. tevanāmagataṃ ca anupubbaṃ, ekamanā nisāmetha mudaggaṃ.]

Mūlasusaṃvaradhammadāyādā, bheravānaṅgaṇākaṅkheyyavatthaṃ;

Sallekhasammādiṭṭhisatipaṭṭhaṃ, vaggavaro asamo susamatto.

Satipaññhànasuttaü

Establishing Mindfulness

I heard thus.

At one time the Blessed One lived in the hamlet named Kammàssadhamma in the Kuru country. From there the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus: ‘Bhikkhus, there is only one way for the purification of beings, for ending grief and lament, to overcome unpleasantness and displeasure and to realize extinction and that is this fourfold establishment of mindfulness. What four?

Abiding reflecting the body in the body, mindful and aware to dispel covetousness and displeasure for the world. [1]

Abiding reflecting the feeling in feelings, mindful and aware to dispel covetousness and displeasure for the world. [2]

Abiding reflecting the mental state in the mind, mindful and aware to dispel covetousness and displeasure for the world. [3]

Abiding reflecting the thought thoughts, mindful and aware, to dispel covetousness and displeasure for the world. [4]

‘Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu abide reflecting the body in the body? Here, the bhikkhu gone to the forest, to the root of a tree, or to an empty house, sits cross-legged, the body erect and mindfulness established in front. He mindfully breathes in and out. Breathing in long he knows, `I breathe in long.' Breathing out long knows, `I breathe out long.' Breathing in short knows, `I breathe in short.' Breathing out short knows, `I breathe out short.' He trains, `feeling the whole body I breathe in. Feeling the whole body I breathe out.'

‘He trains, `Calming the bodily determination I breathe in, calming the bodily determination I breathe out.' Just as a clever turner or his apprentice, pulling the bellows long knows, `I pull them long,' and pulling the bellows short knows `I pull them short.' In the same manner, breathing in long, knows `I breathe in long;' breathing out long, knows `I breathe out long.' Breathing in short knows, `I breathe in short,' and breathing out short knows `I breathe out short.' He trains, `Calming the bodily determination I breathe in, calming the bodily determination I breathe out.'

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally, or he abides reflecting the body in the body exterrnally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body, Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again, the bhikkhu, going knows, `I go;' standing, knows `I stand;' Sitting, knows `I sit;' lying, knows, `I lie.' What and whatever posture the body maintains, that and that he knows.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally, or he abides reflecting the body in the body externally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again the bhikkhu becomes aware, going forward or turning back, looking on, or looking about, bending, or stretching, He becomes aware bearing the three robes and bowl, becomes aware enjoying, drinking, eating, or tasting. He becomes aware going, standing, sitting, lying, speaking, or keeping silence.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body externally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting this body up from the sole, down from the hair on the top, and surrounded by the skin as full of various impurities. There are in this body, head-hair, body-hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, veins, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, lower intestines, bowels, stomach, excreta, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, eye secretions, saliva, snot, oil of joints, and urine.

Just like a bag of provisions open on both sides, is filled up with various grains such as rice, paddy, green grams, beans, sesame, and fine rice. A man who could see would pull it out and reflect, ‘This is rice, this paddy, this green grams, this beans, this sesame, and this is fine rice.’ In the same manner the bhikkhu abides reflecting this body, up from the sole, down from the hair on the top, and surrounded by the skin as full of various impurities. There are in this body, head-hair, body-hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, veins, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, lower intestines, bowels, stomach, excreta, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, eye secretions, saliva, snot, oil of joints, and urine.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body externally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts that arise in the body. Or he abides reflecting thoughts that fade in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting this body as elements in whatever posture it is. There are in this body, the elements, earth, water, fire, and air. Just as a clever butcher or his apprentice would be seated in a hut at the four crossroads with a killed cow dissecting it into small bits. In the same manner, in this body, there are the elements earth, water, fire, and air.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body externally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body.' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again, the bhikkhu reflects this body as a dead body thrown in the charnel ground, either after one day, two days or three days, bloated, turned blue and festering. This body too is subject to that same, has not gone beyond it.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body externally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting thearising of thoughts in the body, Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body, Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting this body as a dead body thrown in the charnel ground eaten by hawks, vultures, dogs, foxes, or by various other living things. This body too is subject to that same, has not gone beyond it.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body externally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting this body as a corpse thrown in the charnel ground, a skeleton with flesh and blood and connecting veins. .. A skeleton without flesh, smeared with blood and connected with veins. .. a skeleton flesh and blood gone, connected by veins ... a disconnected skeleton thrown about everywhere. In one place a hand bone, in another a foot bone, in another a knee bone, in another a thigh bone, in another a hip bone, in another the back bone, in another the skull. This body too is subject to that same, has not gone beyond it.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body externally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arisisng of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting this body as a corpse thrown in the charnel ground bones turned white like the colour of pearls, bones rotten and turned to powder. This body too is subject to that same, has not gone beyond it.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the body in the body internally. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body externlly. Or he abides reflecting the body in the body internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the body. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the body. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a body,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the body in the body,

‘Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu abide reflecting the feeling in feelings?

‘Here, the bhikkhu, feeling a pleasant feeling, knows, `I feel a pleasant feeling.' Feeling an unpleasant feeling, knows, `I feel an unpleasant feeling.' Feeling a neither unpleasant nor pleasant feeling knows, `I feel a neither unpleasant nor a pleasant feeling.' Feeling a pleasant material feeling, knows `I feel a pleasant material feeling.' Feeling a pleasant immaterial feeling knows, `I feel a pleasant immaterial feeling.' Feeling an unpleasant material feeling, knows `I feel an unpleasant material feeling.' Feeling an unpleasant immaterial feeling, knows `I feel an unpleasant immaterial feeling.' Feeling a neither unpleasant nor pleasant material feeling, knows, `I feel a neither unpleasant nor pleasanat material feeling.' Feeling a neither unpleasant nor pleasant immaterial feeling, knows `I feel a neither unpleasant nor pleasant immaterial feeling.

‘Thus he abides reflecting the feeling in feelings internally. Or he abides reflecting the feeling in feelings externally. Or he abides reflecting the feeling in feelings internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in feelings, Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in feelings. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in feelings. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a feeling,' and abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the feeling in feelings.

‘Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu abide reflecting the mental state in the mind?

‘Here, the bhkkhu with a greedy mind knows, `It is a greedy mind.' With a non-greedy mind knows, `It is a non-greedy mind.' With an angry mind knows, `It is an angry mind.' With a non-angry mind knows, `It is a non-angry mind.' With a deluded mind knows, `It is a deluded mind.' With a non-deluded mind knows, `It is a non-deluded mind.' With a non-scattered mind knows, `It is a non-scattered mind.' With a scattered mind knows, `It is a scattered mind.' With a developed mind knows, `It is a developed mind;' and with an undeveloped mind knows, `It is an undeveloped mind.' With a mind with compare knows, `It is a mind with compare.' With a mind without compare knows, `It is a mind without compare.' With a concentrated mind knows, `It is a concentrated mind.' With an unconcentrated mind knows, 'Iit is an unconcentrated mind.' With a released mind knows, `It is a released mind; and with an unreleased mind, knows `Iit is an unreleased mind.'

‘Thus he abides reflecting the mental state in the mind internally, or he abides reflecting the mental state in the mind externally. Or he abides reflecting the mental state in the mind internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts with the mental state, or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts with the mental states. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts with the mental state. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a mental state,' and he abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting the mental state in the mind.

‘Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu abide reflecting the thoughts in the thought?

‘Here, the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the five hindrances. How does the bhikkhu abide reflecting thoughts on the five hindrances?

‘When there are sensual interests the bhikkhu knows, `There are sensual interests in me.' When there are no sensual interests the bhikkhu knows, there are no sensual interests in me.' When non-arisen sensual intersets arise, he knows that too. How the arisen sensual interests get dispelled, he knows that too. How dispelled sensual interests do not rise again, he knows that too.

‘When there is anger, the bhikkhu knows, `There is anger in me.' When there is no anger, the bhikkhu knows, `There is no anger in me.' When non-arisen anger arises, he knows that too. How arisen anger gets dispelled, he knows that too. How dispelled anger does not rise again, he knows that too.

‘When there is sloth and torpor, the bhikkhu knows, `There is sloth and torpor in me.' When there is no sloth and torpor, the bhikkhu knows, `There is no sloth torpor in me.' When non-arisen sloth and torpor arises, he knows that too. How arisen sloth and torpor gets dispelled, he knows that too. How dispelled sloth and torpor does not rise again, he knows that too.

‘When there is excitement and worry the bhikkhu knows, `There is excitement and worry in me.' When there is no excitement and worry, the bhikkhu knows, `There is no excitement and worry in me.' When non-arisen excitement and worry arises, he knows that too. How arisen excitement and worry gets dispelled, he knows that too. How dispelled excitement and worry does not rise again, he knows that too.

‘When there are doubts, the bhikkhu knows, ‘there are doubts in me.' When there are no doubts, the bhikkhu knows, `There are no doubts in me.' How non-arisen doubts arise, he knows that too. How arisen doubts get dispelled, he knows that too How dispelled doubts do not rise again, he knows that too.

‘Thus he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought externally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a thought,' and he abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts in the thoughts of the five hindrances.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the five holding masses. How does the bhikkhu abide reflecting thoughts on the five holding masses?

‘Here, the bhikkhu abides reflecting, `This is matter, this the arising of matter, this is the fading of matter. These are feelings, this the arsing of feelings, this the fading of feelings. These are perceptions, this is the arising of perceptions, and this the fading of perceptions. These are determinations, this the arising of determinations and this is the fading of determinations. This is consciousness, this is the arising of consciousness and this is the fading of consciousness.'

‘Thus he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought externally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the thought. O he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a thought,' and he abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts in the thoughts of the five holding masses.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the six internal and external spheres. How does the bhikkhu abide reflecting thoughts on the six internal and external spheres?

‘Here the bhikkhu knows the eye and matter and knows the bond that arises on account of the two. Knows how the non-arisen bond arises and how the arisen bond is dispelled. Knows how the dispelled bond would not rise again.

‘He knows the ear and sounds, and knows the bond that arises on account of the two; knows how the non-arisen bond arises and how the arisen bond is dispelled; kknows how the dispelled bond would not rise again.

‘He knows the nose and smells, and knows the bond that arises on account of the two; knows how the non-arisen bond arises and how the arisen bond is dispelled; knows how the dispelled bond would not rise again; knows the tongue and tastes, and knows the bond that arises on account of the two; knows how the non-arisen bond arises and how the arisen bond is dispelled; knows how the dispelled bond would not rise again.

‘Knows the ‘body and touches, and knows the bond that arises on account of the two; knows how the non-arisen bond arises and how the arisen bond is dispelled; knows how the dispelled bond would not rise again; knows the mind and thoughts and knows the bond that arises on account of the two; knows how the non-arisen bond arises and how the arisen bond is dispelled; knows how the dispelled bond would not rise again.

‘Thus he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought externally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a thought,' and he abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus too the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the six internal and external spheres.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the seven enlightenment factors. How does the bhikkhu abide reflecting thoughts on the seven enlightenment factors?

‘When the enlightenment factor mindfulness is present, the bhikkhu knows, `The enlightenment factor mindfulness is present When the enlightenment factor mindfulness is not present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor mindfulness is not present. Knows how the non-arisen enlightenment factor mindfulness arises. Knows how the arisen enlightenment factor mindfulness gets completed by development.

‘When the enlightenment factor investigation of the Teaching is present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor investigation of the Teaching is present.' When the enlightenment factor investigation of the Teaching is not present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor investigation of the Teaching is not present.' He knows how the non-arisen enlightenment factor investigation of the Teaching arises; knows how the arisen enlightenment factor investigation of the Teaching gets completed by development.

‘When the enlightenment factor effort is present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor effort is present.' When the enlightenment factor effort is not present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor effort is not present.' He knows how the non-arisen enlightenment factor effort arises; knows how the arisen enlightenment factor effort gets completed by development.

‘When the enlightenment factor joy is present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor joy is present. When the enlightenment factor joy is not present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor joy is not present.' He knows how the non-arisen enlightenment factor joy arises; knows how the arisen enlightenment factor joy gets completed by development.

‘When the enlightenment factor tranquility is present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor tranquility is present.' When the enlightenment factor tranquility is not present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor tranquility is not present.' He knows how the non-arisen enlightenment factor tranquility arises; knows how the arisen enlightenment factor tranquility gets completed by development.

‘When the enlightenment factor concentration is present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor concentration is present.' When the enlightenment factor concentration is not present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor concentration is not present.' He knows how the non-arisen enlightenment factor concentration arises; knows how the arisen enlightenment factor concentration gets completed by development.

‘When the enlightenment factor equanimity is present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor equanimity is present.' When the enlightenment factor equanimity is not present, he knows, `The enlightenment factor equanimity is not present.' He knows how the non-arisen enlightenment factor equanimity arises; knows how the arisen enlightenment factor equanimity gets completed by development.

‘Thus he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought externally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts in the thought internally and externally. Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the thought. Or mindfulness is established, `There is a thought,' and he abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the seven enlightenment factors.

‘Again, the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the thoughts of the four noble truths. How does the bhikkhu abide reflecting thoughts on thoughts of the four noble truths?

‘Here, the bhikkhu, sees as it really is, `This is unpleasant, this is the arising of unpleasantness, this is the cessation of unpleasantness and this is the path to the cessàtion of unpleasantness.'

Thus he abides reflecting thoughts on the thought internally, Or he abides reflecting thoughts on the thought externally. Or he abides reflecting thoughts on the thought internally and externally, Or he abides reflecting the arising of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he abides reflecting the arising and fading of thoughts in the thought. Or he establishes mindfulness, `There is a thought,' and he abides not supported on anything in the world. Thus the bhikkhu abides reflecting thoughts on the thoughts of the four noble truths.

‘Whoever bhikkhu develops these four establishments of mindfulness for seven years, could expect one of these fruits: either knowledge of extinction here and now, or become mindful of not returning with substratum remaining. Leave alone seven years, if he develops these four establishments of mindfulness for six years, five years, four years, three years, two years, one year ,

Bhikkhus, leave alone one year, if he develops these four establishments of mindfulness for seven months, six months, five months, four months, three months, two months, for one month, or even half a month, Bhikkhus, leave alone half a month, if he develops these four establishments of mindfulness for seven days, could expect one of these fruits either knowledge of extinction here and now, or become mindful of not returning with substratum remaining.

‘Bhikkhus, there is one single way for the purification of beings, for the ending of grief and lament, for overcoming unpleasantness and displeasure, for realizing knowledge and extinction, that is this fourfold establishment of mindfulness. If it was said thus, it was said on account of this.’

The Blessed One said thus and those bhikkhus delighted in the words of the Blessed One.

[End of the Muulapariyàyavagga ]


[1] Abiding reflecting the body in the body. `kàye kàyànupassii viharati'. `In the body' is the material body of the four primary elements; `the body' consists of the six internal and external spheres, It is this six internal and external spheres that help the body to co-exist. These together work as a living person.

[2] Abiding reflecting the feeling in feelings. `vedanàsu vedanànupassii viharati'. In feelings. These are the for ever present feelings that arise with every sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and idea. This is a non-stop process. On account of some of these feelings certain other feelings arise, e.g., when one is hurt, or when one is pleased. There arises the feeling in feelings.

[3] Abiding reflecting the mental states in the mind. `citte cittànupassii viharati'. The various mental states are the mind with anger, without anger etc. So we have to reflect how they rise, fade, and fade for good.

[4] Abiding reflecting thoughts in the thought `dhamme dhammànupassii viharati'. With the arising of a thought a train of thoughts follow, so thoughts in the thought are thoughts and thought processes.